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Full text of "History of the islands and islets in the Bay of Fundy, Charlotte County, New Brunswick [microform] : from their earliest settlement to the present time, including sketches of shipwrecks and other events of exciting interest"

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Water Street, Saint Stephen. 

S. & M. have always on hand i\. large ami 
well-assorted stock .of Dry Goods, and respect- 
fully call the attention of their Customers and 
the Public o"(^,ierally t<» the follo*win«i' DopMrt-' 
ni(^nts : 

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Sketches of Shipwrecks and Othek 
Events (If Exciting Interest 




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i • ST. STEPHEN, N. B. 


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CHAPTER I. .,-: 


The Bay-Ite Peculiarities— Rivers— Capes— Crti.e Blomi.lon— Basin 
ol Minas-Tides- Fogs-Bay de Veite-Wellingt.,n Dyke -Counties 
Waslied.&c, Page 5. ' 


;*■ '» GRAND MAN AN. 

Early History-Seal Cove-Outer Islandg-Gmnd Harbour- Wood- 
ward's Cove- White Head-Centvoville -North Hea<l-Eel Brook— 
Ixjng Island-Otlier Islets— Shipwrecks-Miuerals, &c. J'ajje II. 



Ueacription-Tho Connollya-Lights-ShipwreckB— Pish and Fowl, 
&c. Page 71. . ; : 



Early History-James Chaifey-Jndian Kelics-Le Fontaine-Smug. 
Khng-Fight for Tar-Capturfe of Schooner-John Doyle's Song- 
-Fnnians and the British Flag-Stores Barnt-Isln.Kl Fleet-CustoraR 
—Indians' Burying Ground, &c. Page 73. 


Early History-Peculiaiity of Road System-Pishless Lake-Indian 
Rehcs-Coye3-Churches.-School3 _ Temperance- WhirlpooIs-Jx»8s 

( 'oiitoits. 

of Lifo— B(>;if nwaUowol up in Whirlpools— Piouf* Sin«>ng Saves a 
BoatniHii — Lobfter Factory, &c. Page 89. .... • ; .^^ 




Ktirly History — Sinvoving Stouiner Columbia — Miiu'mly— FIiivbourH — 
Liph. house — Church«9 -Schools— Welchpool—Wilaon's Boacli— Adnii- 
i-hI Owen — Captiiiii JlobiTjs^on-Owen— Dibh FiiiisJ — Boat Uacin^: — Vete- 
ran Mail Carrier — Central Koad—Harbour ilo liUte, ik.v. l*.i;^« 97. 

K> ^ ciriArTEii Yii. ■ ' •■ ' 


liemarks -The Bay— I'lie " Bore "—Lives Lost— Five Lights— Salt- 
Water Triangle — Militia rramiup: -Gieat Hole ThroMfrh a Cliff— Wash- 
ington and Wellin,';ton— Minerals — Hettutiful Specunons — New Weir 
— Porpoise Shooting — Fertility—Houses and Stores— Pedlars— Post- 
Ofticos — Mail-Vessels— Schooners— Boats and Steamer — Singular Fruit 
— (icueral lloview— Closing Remarks. Paffe 107. 

A D V E R T I S y M E N T ir^ ' ;, 

C. N. Vroom, St. Stephen, N.B. . 

Love, Clark & Co., do. 

H. W. Goddard, do. .' " 

G.F.Pinder, ~' ; : a^. :' ^^ ^ • '"^^ ' -^' ' .' ' ^'^ 

M. McGowan, " -" moi. '. ' ' ; " ' . 

J. K. Lallin, "40. ' '• '• i- • . 

Griffin Bros., EaStport, Me., and Campobello, TfT. B. - "' 

E. Daggett, >sorth Head, Grand Manan, • . 

Magnus Green, do. do. •,.■ > , •' 

Mrs. E. A. Dixon, do. do. ^ '' " ' " • 

William Watt, do. do. "'' \" "^ . , 

James O'Brien, do. do. . ' *^ - . - 

N. M. Small, Woodward's Cove, Grand Manati, ■"• 

John Fraser, do. do. . 

Smith & Murray, St. Stephen, N. B. . ■ page 

The St. Croix Coun«r, do. , . . " 







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2 of Cover 

4 do. 



— Adiiii- 
— Vete- 

' . , ; . . .:. . , . OF H .VI >,-^' ^- - 


ts— Salt- 
— Wiish- 
ew Weiv 
re — Post- 
la 1- Fruit 


\Mige 123 
" 124 
♦' 125 
" 126 
" 127 
' 128 
" 129 
" 130 
" 130 
" 130 
" 131 
•' 131 
•' 132 
«' 1J2 
of Cover 




HE various islands lyin^ in tLe Bay of 
Fundy and ander the Government of tlic 
Dominion of Canada embrace a fair 
1,^^^^ field for historical and descriptive embodi- 
ment. » As tho?e islands are no mean 
appendages of the New Dominion, and gradually rising' 
in importance, it would seem a fitting time now, no longer 
to delay to make tliom better known, and thus add theis 
quota to the pjrand inducements of the Dominion, gener- 
ally, for an increasing population. Visitors to a few of 
those islands and newspaper contributors have, occasion- 
ally, presented their pen-sketches just as fancy and 
disposition directed them ; — but, to do those tracts of 
sea-land something like justice, a methodical history, 
published in a form less evanescent tban the columns of 
i\ Lewspaj)er, is needed ; and to supply this requirement 
is the intention of the author of the present publication. 
The nearer art approaches nature in her delineations, 
the nearer to perfection ; so the nearer romance comes 
toreulity — tiction to truth — the closer hold it takes up«#n 
our judgment and ouf feelings. Historical remixiiscences 




Bay of Fundi/ Inlands and Islefg. 

are always fresh and new ; and dost^riptivo {i;eof:frap}iy 
possesses a charm, recommending* itself alike to old and 
younp. The novelist, who keeps liis Rocrin;.^ fli<,'hts of 
imagination within tlie lionnds of probability, oommands 
and receives the admiration and approval of every reader 
who desires and delights in sometliing more tlian airy 
nothin.ojs, flights of fancy, and incredibilities. If we feel 
that we are reading facts, although the record e-honM 
read ** strange as fiction," the impression is liable to. 
t)e deep and enduring, and, in many instances, carries 
salutary influences with it. 

The pages now in the hands of the reader, lay right- 
ful claim to authenticity, without the embellishments of 
studied diction, or the tinselled adornments of romance. 
Indeed, such are needless here, for abundant material 
presents itself in progressing with ilie work in hand, to 
satisfy the most ardent lover of the marvellous, that 
"truth is stranger than fiction." 

The reader is now introduced to the Bay of Fundy. 
This bay is a magnificent portion of the Atlantic Ocean, 
running some 150 miles up from its mouth, and 
separating Nova Scotia from New Brunswick. It is not 
our task here to award the meed of fame to Scandinavian, 
French, the Cabots, Americus Vespucius, Colum- 
bus, Cartier, DeMonts, Champlain, or others, as the 
original discoverers or explorers of the Bay of Fundy. 
It is enough that we have this splendid old bay before 
us, studded in many parts with beautiful islands. The 
singularity of its tides has been noted from the first 
dawn of its discovery by European eyes. They have a 
rise and fall varying from 30 to 60 feet, and sometimes 
60 feet ! At all times the flux and reflux of these rush- 
ing tides, more especially at the mouths of the rivers, 
bays, and basins, of the head w .ters, are remarkable, 
presenting objects of intense inters st. Not unfrequently a 
sort of tidal wave, which from itt. white froth foam has 
obtained the name of "bore," comes rolling in andover 
the 1T)W flat shores with a seemingly overwhelming 
rapidity and force, hardly conceivable by one who has 
never witnessed it, rushing swifter than the foaming 
speed of an Arabian charger, and with a noise more 
terrific than the thundering roa.' of an African lion ! 

This bay, has the unenviable reputation of being a 

In Charlotte Countff, Npw Ihnnswick, 

lodgliipf-place for vvhiit Roftmon dread more than tempest 
ff&ltis — fo;^ — and not unjustly ; for durint^ the summer 
months, the very period of flie year when sjilt water 
margins and their scenery are sought by tonriats as 
sources of invii^ enjoyment, that detestable foe to 
the sailor and the tourist, fog, comes too ! It brings 
witli it und puts on an extins]juir.her, not unfrequently 
for many days and niofhts in succession, over the lovely 
scenery of land and sea. But, even this salt water fo<?, 
dense as it may be, is bliss compared with the sultry 
atmosphere of thn main land interior — of inland towns 
and crowded citie <, where cholera and other conta<Tfious 
ills visit the sweltered citizens ; vrnile the inhabitants of 
those f()o:-\-iflited islands in the Bay of Fundv wear the 
bloom of health upon their cheeks and are stronp^ to 
pursue their v/onted vocation. Visitors, too, soon 
become assimilated to the fog — become exuberant, pven 
when saturated in a foof-mist, revellin*? in fog, as in sun- 
shine, becoming as sportive as a lamb on its island 
home, or the tumbling porpoise in tlie bay. 

It was a joyful i^iglit to the eyes of tlie adventurous 
navi-^utors of the Atlantic Ocean from the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, when they first beheld the streak of anotlier 
continent lining the horiz-.m with its verdant sheen 

The discoverers of a western world must have felt their 
hearts stirred and thrilled to their depths, as the lovely 
islands of summer latitudes erst presented themselves 
before them, lying in the sunshine like " pearly gems at 
random set." No wonder, those daring Europeans felt 
constrained to give prais. to God at the sight ! It was 
meet they should, and doubtless their spontaneous out- 
poi7rings of thanksgiving were heard in heaven. 

It was with kindred emotions of amazement, joy and 
praise that the first explorers of the North American 
coast, gazed upon the broad bosom of the Bay of Fundy 
as they sailed over its rolling waves. The political 
division made in the year 1784, separating Nova Scotia 
into two parts (the northern part called New Brunswick) 
cannot separate them geographically; for they are indis- 
solubly united by an earth ligament, called the Isthmus 
of Chignecto, 12 miles wide, securer more than ever 
were the Siamese twins; and so may be called with 
propriety the twin sisters of the ocean; and thus, by 



Buy of Fnmly lalaiuh and Islei.f, 

1 1 


their raaritinie position, an itlentification of intorcsts 
seems niitural, reasonable and necessary, each for each, 
even were they not nationally confedersited under the 
new name of the Dominion of Canada. 

This long arm of the oceun, tlie Bay of Fundy, 
extending from its mouth to Cape Chijjnecto, here 
separates and branches oif, running up (^In'gnecto Bay 
a north-easterly course, and a^rain turns, now more 
northerly, sweeping up Shopody Bay into tlie Petitcodiac 
river, penetrating by its rushing t'de to Moncton. It 
runs also jrom this minor cape in Shepody Bay a more 
easterly direction, \\ ashing the vrestern shores of AVest- 
moreland and Cumberland Counties, fornting Cumber- 
land Basin — the Bay de Verte, on the Strait of North- v^., 
umberland, Gulf Coast, being only 12 miles distant. j 
Here is the connecting link, the earth ligament, the 
Isthmus of Chiguecto, through which it has been con- 
tem[)lated to cut a canal to unite the waters of the Gulf 
of St. liawrence ^'ith those of the Bay of Fundv. Our 
great bay also turns at Cape Chii;necto and runs a 
south-easterly course, passing several capes, the most 
noted. Cape Blomidou, which our seamen of the Bay 
sometimes honor with the ap])ropriate name — " Cape 
B!ow-me-down," as seldom or ever any vessel on pass- 
ing can get by without paying it the comjjulsory compli- 
ment of *' dipping " her sails, so fiercely does Cape 
Blomidon blow down upon them ! Ruuning up past 
this cape a narrow run, the Bay widens out into a broad 
she(3t of water, called Minas Pasin ; and, pushing on in 
its mighty tide-rush, is only cuecked at Truro, along the 
shore of which it ta les the name of Cobequid Bay ; and 
looking more southerly, it also sweeps along that shore, ■ 
touching the town of Windsor — receiving, in conse- * 
quence, the name of Windsor River. Cornwallis, also, 
that line farming district, gives its portion of the Bay 
its meed of praise, by calling it Cornwallis Biver, iiot- 
withstanding that thousands of dollars and tens of 
thousands have been expended \,o resist the mad desire 
of the wild " bore '' of the Ba> to roam at will over its 
fertile bosom of broad acres. Tlie " W^ellington Dyke * 
stands sentinel to obstruct tl ^ enemy. 

The reader will please pardon the digression if we 
deviate a little from our course here to remark, paradox- 

In Charlotte Court tii, New Brunswick. 


ically, tliat this coinieeJiug link, the Isthmus of Chig- 
necto, is tho dividiii',' line hetvveen the fine County of 
Cumberland iu Nova Scotia, and its equally fine County 
of W( stnioreland in New Brunswick, and that Cumher- 
hird County is at present lepresented in the Dominion 
Parliu-.ncnt by T)r, Tupper, who is a large land owner in 
each Province, and accoriliiigly seems to hold an even- 
handed justice and good fellowship for them both. 
Westmoreland County has the parliamentary guardian- 
ship of Hon. A. J. Smith, who being the Minister of 
Marine and Fisheries, is in duty bound to exercise his 
powers for the general goodj irrespective of locality. 

The f-outliern shore of the Bay of Fundy washes 
four counties belonging to Nova Scotia — namely, Digby, 
Annapolis, Kings, and Hants — those counties lying on 
the north side of that Province. 

The northern part of the Bay washes three counties 
on the south coast of New Brunswick — namely, Char- 
lotte, St. John and Albert Counties. 

From this brief sketch of the Bay of Fuudy, the 
reader, hitherto unacquainted with it, may form a very 
good idea of the long and broad expanse of water sur- 
rounding the islands, the ])rincipal of which, appertaining 
to the Province of New Brunswick, is herein described. 
The author of tiiis little n ork, feels keenly alive to the 
task. In this age of book-making, it requires no little 
hardiho»)d to launch forth on the stormy, fluctuating and 
sometimes v>'helming waves of public opinion and news- 
papers' criticisms, an original production. Were the 
author seeking for the fame of authGrshi[),he would not be 
an aspirant — were he writing as a paid scribe, he would 
shrink from the responsibility; but when he lifts his 
pen to bring into greater notoriety the islands of the 
Bay of Fnndy, sitaate in the waters of Charlotte County, 
Nesv Brunswick, his liand seems nerved to the under- 
taking; for he feels those islands merit all that tn/f/^ 
[can present in their l)ehalf ; and even then, the words 
iof Sheba's Queen to Solomon the King, may be 
appropriately quoted -*'The half has not been told." 

The author avails himself of the opportunity atifbrded 
[him in these prefatory remarks, to tender his obligations 
[to William Dixon, Esq., of Her Majesty's Customs at 
[Indian Island ; also, to Mr. Walter B. McLaughlin, of 



Bay of Fundij Idands and Islets, 

vrrantl Manan, for the valuable aid reiulei-ed in obtainiiif^ 
and imparting very much information touching the 
original history of Indian Island and the Island of 
Grand Manan. Others, too, who have readily con- 
tributed snch information as they possessed, will accept 
the author's thanks; for, unaided in collecting necer-sary 
material, the present volume would have been Jeficient 
in many of the most interesting events connected with 
our islands' history. 

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flYTHOLOGY describes Nereus as a 
marine deity attendant on Neptune, the 
god of the sea; with numerous Nf^reids, 
lior daughters, as beautiful sea nyraphs 
riding on S'^a horses; and the fabled 
description has, in part, its reality in Grand Manan, 
which sits as an ocean goddess out on the restless waves 
of the Bay of Fundy, with numerous little islands, like 
marine Nereids, clustered around her. This fine island 
and its many appurtenances of minor islands and islets, 
comprise the Parish of Grand Manan, in the County of 
Charlotte, in the Province of New Brunswick. The 
})rovince,ht.v'ing been divided into counties — the County 
of Clmrlotte is bounded on the south by the Bay of 
Fundy; and on the west by the Hiver Saint Croix and 
the western shore of Passamaquoddy Bay; on the east 
by a line running true north thirty miles from Point 
Lepreaux ; and on the north by the line running true 
west from the termination of the last-mentioned line. 
Deputies Wilkinson and Mahood made this survey in 
A. D. 1838 ; and, subsequently, a re-survey was made by 
Deputy Mahood in the year 1845, establishing the 
original boundaries, and inchiding all the islands adjacent 
thereto, and the Island of Grand ^lanan and the islands 
adjacent to it. The division of the province into 
counties was next followed by the division of each 
county into parishes; and by an Act of Legislature 
passed 1st May, 1S54, the Island of Grand Manan, with 
its appurtenances, became a separate political parish, 
known as the Parish of Grand Manan. 

It must not be understood, however, that Grand 
Manan was not a parish, distinct from the other parishes 
in the county, previous to the political divisions under, 
and by authority of the Act passed in 1854. The is- 


Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets^ 


land had been regarded as the Parish of Grand Man an 
many years hefore — to which reference will he made on 
another page, connected with a circumstance of no com- 
mon kind — but we must not anticipate. It was l)y the 
codification of the laws and statutes of New Brunswick 
in the year 1854, that the law prescrihed the political 
division of the province into counties and pnrisheR; 
and thus Grand Manan, with its island appurtenances, 
was, in common with the other parishes, firmly and de- 
finitely set apart, by legal statute, as the Parish of Grand 
Manan, in the County of Charlotte. 

The boundaries of this important parish of i^dands 
having been definitely settled, the main island. Grand 
Manan, in extent, is 20 miles long, and 8 miles broad. 
"Calkin's Geography" so describes it, and as that work 
bas been introduced as a text book into the public 
schools of New Brunswick, under the sanction of the 
Board of Education, it would be assuming more than 
would be conceded, to dispute its correctness, conse- 
quently, we take it for granted that this fine island is of 
the aforesaid dimensions. Its earliest history runs 
co-eval with the discovery of the Bay of Fundy; although, 
doubtless, many events and exciting scenes, abounding 
with intense interest, liave sunk beneath the dark wave 
of oblivion, which neither grapnel, nor skillful diver, nor 
pearl-fisher can ever bring up to appear on historic 
page, which is much to be regretted. 

The intrepid and ardent Champlain, who with De 
Monts furrowed the waves of the broad Bay of Fundy 
with his adventurous keel in the years 1604-5, mentions 
the discovery of the island while coasting along from 
the St. John River to Passamaquoddy Bay. There ex- 
ists a slight difference in the orthography of the woid — 
the name of the island — as among tlie subjects of Her 
Majesty it is spelled Grand Manan; while the subjects 
of the American Republic invaria])ly spell it Grand 
Menan. A custom's officer has only to note the *'e" in 
the last part of tlie nan)e on barrel, or box, or p^ircel 
that raav reach tlio island, to assure liiniself whence it 
came. American authority cites the Passamaquoddy 
Indian in support of its orthography of the word Menan, 
signifying island; but ChamT>]ain speaks of it, as men- 
tioned by him in his voyage-description, as called by 

In Charlotte Counti/, New Brunsirick. 


the Ravages Mcnthanc ; and, acfain referring to the 
island, spells it Mavnsne; leavinfrthe reader, as it were, 
to choose Jfor himself, which seeras a verv easv mode of 
overcoming a difficulty. Champlain speaks of having 
anchored at one time near the Southern Head of the 
island, and it appears he left the hest proof possible 
that he did so; for, in the year 1842, Mr. Walter B. 
McLaughlin, whose residence is at Southern Head, found 
the remains of a large anchor that must have lain be- 
neath the .salt water wave, snbject to the corroding 
hanjd of rusty time, for over 200 years ! Our inform- 
ant states as his opinion, circumstances tending to 
confirm it, that the bold navigator, Champlain, must 
have run his vessel aground in one of those "fog-mulls," 
which almoF.t invariably make an annual visit, envelop- 
ing for the time being the entire island, its islets, and 
the surrounding waters, in a pall of density so thick as 
to render it impenetrable to vision. Even ''Peeping 
Tom," were he here in a fog- mull, would have to ac- 
knowledge his poor eye-sight. Mr. McLaughlin states 
that the shank of this anchor was eleven feet long; and, 
at one part of it — the shank — it was seven inches in 
diameter; and although it must have originally weighed 
some 14 cwt., it was reduced by the long lapse of time, 
subject to rust and the action of the sea, to le*fes than 
800 lbs — an indubitable evidence that, over two centuries 
had passed away, with all the strange and mighty 
changes which the old a!id the new world, the eastern 
and the western hemisphere, have experienced, since 
Champlain lost his anchor at Southern Head, Grand 
Manan! Traditionary legends tell us many strange 
stories relating to Grand Manan, as having occurred 
long before the advent of Champlain on its coasts — as 
to pirates making it their favourite rendezvous, secret- 
ing money (hence, we have a cove on the western side, 
called Money Cove) ; and at the mouth of the deep-dug 
hole, making an unhappy victim swear to keep that 
money safe from all comers f )r all time; and then, to* 
make the spirit-sentinel keep good faith to the pledge 
givien while in the body, shooting the swearer, and bury- 
ing the body with the pirated silver and the gold. But 
those yarns, spun out by lovers of imaginative marvels 
to excite the wonder of the credulous, belong not to 



Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

t -y. 



authentic history, and so they are as they ought to he 
discarded from its pages. It is well authenticated that, 
the Passamaquoddy Indians were the undisputed 
possessors of the island until ahout the yuar 1776; for 
ahout this period a white family hy the name of 
Bonny arrived at the island from the mainland of New 
Brunswick, and pitched their tent near Grand Harhour, 
at a place called Bonny's Brook, which name it retains 
to the present time, and probably will in the long 
future. Bonny, with his family, remained unmolested 
for about three years, when they were finally ordered to 
leave by the Passamaquoddy Indians, under the direc- 
tion of a Colonel John Allan who, in 1777, conducted 
operations in eastern Maine. This tribe of Indiana was 
allied to the American cause during the Revolution. In 
speaking of this tribe of savages, as they were then, the 
term Passamaquoddy comes from Peskamaquontik, and 
that from Peskadaminkkanti — viz., "it goes up into 
the open field" — and not from the word Quoddy, which 
signifies pollock, as generally understood. ;,:.,.>_. 
, An American writer, from whose work we make 
several extracts, states that from the best authority ob- 
tainable "one of the earliest' settlers on the island was 
Moses Gerrish of Massachusetts, who adhered to the 
King rft the breaking out of the Revolution, and was 
attached to the commissary department of the royal army. 
Also, one Thomas Ross and John Jones ; Jones return- 
ing to the United States, Gerrish and Ross remaining," 
Of Colonel John Allan's descendants, it may not be 
inopportune to state that our kind informa^.l,, Mr. W. 
B. McLaughlin, whose name we will have occasion to 
use quite freely, says he is intimately acquainted with a 
grand-daughter of the Colonel, now residing at Lubec, 
Me., and, whose silver hairs count the age of 82 years. 
From this venerable lady, much of the history of Grand 
Mauan has been gleaned. Of a great-grandson of the 
said Colonel Allan, it may be here recorded that he now 
lives on the island, and in a state of abject poverty. It 
cannot he that the sin of the great-grandfather, the 
Colonel, in commissioning the Indians to drive off poor 
Bonny from Bonny's Brook, could have been visited on 
the innocent great-grandson — and yet, the sins of 
ancestors are visited upon the children even to the 


ty ob- 
d was 
id was 
aot be 
Bion to 
with a 

of the 

e now 
y. It 

jr, the 
ff poor 
ited on 
ins of 
to the 

In Charlotte County, Neiv Brunswick. 


tliircl and fourth generation. So reads ^)'j Scripture — a 
lesson worthy of the most serious attenti i. 

On the expatriation of Bonny and hi.^ family they 
settled in Maine, then part of Massachusetts, and their 
New Brunswick relatives and friends, not learning of 
their location, f]jave them np as lost — massacred by the 
Indians; but at the close of the revolutionary war, they 
felt the love of their old home in New Brunswick too 
stronj^ly preponderatiiig in the heart to remain as exiles, 
and therefore, obedient to the yearning dictates of love 
of home, of kith and kin, appeared again on New 
Brunswick soil. The first white male child born on 
Grand Mauan was Alexander Bonny, born at Benny's 
Brook, who grew, his first year or two, like a young sea 
gull among the rocks, washed bv the drifting salt water 
spray. He became a Baptist Minister, and visited his 
native Isle for the last time in 1862 ; and subsequently 
died at the greatly advanced age of 90 years. 

Of Moses Gerrish, according to Sabine's testimony of 
him, he was a man possessed of considerable ability — 
one who "would spread more good sense on a sheet of 
paper than any person of his acquaintance." Mr. 
Gerrish received a Magistrate's appointment, and held 
that office until his death. He died in the year 1880, 
in the 80th year of his age. Speedily following the first 
white settlers — fresh acquisitions added to the number — 
Willram Cheney and family from Newburyport, Mass., 
and others. Gerrish and Ross left no posterity; but 
Cheney's descendants are numerous. His daughter 
Barbara takes precedence as the first white female child, 
born on the island in the year 1787; and Moses, his 
Youngest son, proudly asserted the prerogative of being 
the first male white child born here ; but the Rev. 
Alexander Bonny disputed the Cheney claim to native 
heirship; and, as previously mentioned dates show, 
proved successfully that the modern Jacob had inno- 
cently attempted to steal away the modern Esau's 
birthright Moses died i the year 1873, aged 83 
years 3 months, his remains receiving interment in his 
native soil which he loved so well. Now followed on in 
rapid succession, as settlers, the Daggetts, Smalls, 
Guptills (then spelled Gubtail), Wormells, IngersoUs, 
Bancrofts, Woosters, Ingalls, Newton, and others. AU 

', 1 


Bay of Fun fly Idands and Idets, 

of these were from the old colonies of the States ; hnt, 
clierifihing a patriot love for the old Enn^Hsh flaj?, sought 
their homes on British land, nltljough that land was a sea- 
girt isle, and that period presenting hnt few attractions 
to any less than the hardy and adventurous pioneer. 
Daggett erected a grist-mill at the head of tidal water at 
(jrand Harbour, near the present residence of Mr. John 
Daggett; and Wooster, with equal industry and per- 
weverance, built a tannery, and began the manufacture 
of boots and shoes ; but lish were numerous and too ' 
easily taken to encourage raising grain for the grist-mill; 
and 80, too, the tanning of hides had to give place to 
the capture of lish. Those were the days when herrings 
cod and pollock would rush into Grand Harbour in , 
such immense schools that the ebbing tide would leave 
them in countless nundbers on the shore, "knee deep," 
in the phraseology of those times. In justice to others, 
first settlers, the names of John Kent, Dr. Faxon, 
Franklin, Smith, Bryant, Blake, Blanchard, Bingham, 
Benson, Southwick, Baser, Rich, Moon, Flagg, Russell, 
Morse, Sprague, Chapman, Richardson, Kemble, Fisher, 
Fry, Barker, Kimball, Shepherd, Woodberry, Drake, 
Cameron and Standwick may be added — others adding 
steadily, such as Josiah Winchester, from Nova Scotia, 
also, Daniel McLaughlin from Nova Scotia, of whom 
further mention is made on another page. 

The present inhabitants of the island, on reading over 
the names as above recorded, will find that but very few 
of the original settlers have left descendants — many of 
the persons, whose names are here before us, have 
passed away from the cares and trials, the joys and 
sorrows of this life forever — the present residents of the 
island, many of them, knowing little, and caring less, 
about those who redeemed this beautiful island from its 
occupancy by the Passamaquoddy Indian, and opened 
up a brigiit, and fair, and prosperous inheritance for 
them, and their successors, through untold generations. 
But so it is. Nevertheless: — 

••The waves of time ma^ devastate our lives, 

The frosts of age may check oui* failing breath; » 

They shall not touch the spirit that survives 
Triumphant over doubt, and pain, and death." 

In addition to the names of the earliest settlers on the 
island, we find, Waller, Gaskill, Thomas, Dixon, Burke, 


In Charlotte Coiintjj, New Brunsnick. 



Craic^, Drufjnn, Redmond, Ryan, Kendrick, McLennan, 
McCnrty, Boyle and others. Cocliran Craig and 
Thomas Redmond taught school for several years, and 
earned for themnelves, among the inhahitants, an esteem 
aud a reputation that will blossom and bloom in the 
memory of surviving friends with perennfal freshness, for 
years and years. Another name, Snell, merits mention 
— he too, taught a school on the island ; and his kind- 
liness of disposition, and other winning qualities, have 
endeared him in mnnory to thv^se who, when in their 
teens, received instrwcmon from the good old man, who 
now, "after life's fitful fever, sleepeth well." 

The settlement of Seal Cove dates about the year 
1785. It is to be regretted that no better acount can be 
given of one of the origmal settlers, if not the first one, 
which it seems he was, than that he was a fugitive 
from justice. His name was Wheeler, and he may be 
justly considered as the father "skedadler" of all the 
''skedadlers" that followed after, from time to time, even 
to this day. Connected as he was with a gang of coun- 
terfeiters — Ball, Gates, and Woodburj' — who had their 
head-quarters at Devil's Head, on the bank of the St. 
Croix River, not far from the little village on the 
opposite side of the river, known as the Ledge, and 
there coined counterfeit silver quite extensively. Suspi- 
cion, well-grounded, soon sent officers of justice to arrest 
the gang, aud Ball shot the officer who attempted to 
arrest him. The murderer was subsequently arrested, 
tried, convicted and executed in the State of Maine. 
Woodbury, being also arrested, and convicted of 
counterfeiting, had his ears "cropped,", which must 
have seriously affected him auricularly. Gates eventu- 
ally found his way to Nova Scotia, Hving to old age ; 
but, as if the curse of false coin haunted him even to 
grey-haired years, he committed suicide at Granville, N. 
S., by hanging himself in an orchard to an apple 
tree ! The present light house keeper of Gannet 
Rock Light, Mr. W. B. McLaughlin, when a boy, had 
often seen Gates, and heard him relate much of Grand 
Manan history. 

Wheeler was lucky enough, for the time, to get to 
Grand Manan, and, as has been stated, settled at Seal 
Cove. How fared it with him? Let us see. All around 


t .1 



Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

the cove at that time, a thick wiMernosa of woods pre- 
Kcnted a well-choKen retreat for Wheeler ; but, only for 
a brief period, for he literally starved to death ! His 
remains now lie, secure from all arrest, ou a bill on Lot 
No. 4G. At l^is death, liis emaciated, starving wife, 
with a woman's true devotion under the most trying 
circumstauces, travelled over sharp and rugged rocks 
from Seal Cove to Harbi>iir Island, to o])tain assistance 
to bury her husband. A hop vine, planted by his guilty 
hand, still marks the spot where his log cabin sheltered 
him and wife. Thus ended the mortal career of those 
counterfeiters, who having commenced their nefarious 
business at Devil's Head, ended their guilty lives 
under the devil's influence. Surely, the "way of the 
transgressor is hard." ^^ • : -v 

It may not he uninteresting "to state that the dies 
used by those wretched coiinterfeiteis, were committed to 
a watery grave by casting them out of their boat near 
the centre of Seal Cove Sound, between the red cliffs 
near W. B. McLaughlin's residence, and Hardwood Hill 
on Great Wood Island. The crucibles were discovered 
and recovered a few years ago, nigh the spot where ' 
Wheeler's log hut stood — most probably hid by him for 
future use. After the death of Wheeler, two brothers, 
John and Joseph Blanchard, came to the island from 
the States, and made' their permanent settlement at Seal 
Cove. Next followed Henry Kemball and James 
Parker ; and in the year 1800, Doctor John Faxon came, 
settling at Seal Cove Creek, ou Lot No. 46. The 
Doctor brought his family with him; and, under the 
influence of his enterprising spirit. Seal Cove seemed 
to start, as if by magic, into new life. With a mind 
capable of comprehending the resources lying dormant 
all around his new and chosen location, he was 
keenly alive to the advantages already ripe for develop- 
ment, and at once commenced action, by having a 
passage opened through the ** sea wall " into the cove. 
This accomplished, a splendid little high water harbour 
was at once ready for small vessels and boats ; and the 
fishermen and coasters, who make the Seal Cove Creek 
Harbour their safe and convenient haven, should ever 
remember with gratitude the name of the good and 
energetic physician, Doctor John Faxon. Connected 



d the 

In Charlotte County, New Brunswick. 19 

with the arrival of Dr. Faxon at Seal Oove, is a circum- 
ptance which cannot well lie omitted. The Doctor 
brought with him a Scotchman by the name of John 
Tar. As he was a sailor by profession, nothing could be 
more appropriate tlian to call him "Jack Tar," for 
so in name and verity he was. Now this Jack Tar had 
sailed under the flag and command of Captain Paui 
Jones, and as Paul Jones had been historied as a pirate 
captain, so our Seal Cove emigrant, Jack Tar, must 
have brei), ns one of the crew, a pirate too. It was the 
boast of Jark Tar at Seal Cove, especially, when **on a 
spree" — under the influence of liquor — that he fought 
under Paul Jones on board the Bon Homme Richard, 
in the bloody engagement with the British frigate 
Serapis, Captain Pierce. 

Jack Tar, was exceedingly vain of this battle, and, 
when on his bacchanalian riots, would vaunt on the 
'carnage of that saug'uinary conflict, with all of a sailor's 
enthusiastic volubility, and in addition, sing sea songs 
and songs composed by enemies of King George the 
Third. Dr. Faxon having brought Tar over to the 
island as his " man Friday," endured much of his bad 
conduct patiently for a length of time ; but that forbear- 
ance at last was exhausted, and, accordingly, when Tar 
in one of his sprees played up the old tune of Paul 
Jones and King George, and the Bon Homme and the 
Serapis, and the scuppers running blood, imd the 
wild hurra of the pirate song, the Doctor, at the hour 
of midnight, and while a storm was raging without, put 
the old sailor out of doors to seek shelter Where ho 
would or could. Tar attempted to get to James 
Parker's, about a mile distant from Faxon's; but, in 
the storm and darkness, and in liquor as well, he fell 
over a cliflF, and was found on the rocks benaath, the ' 
next morning, with his brains scattered over the stones ! 
His remains lie buried near the sea on Lot No, 1, the 
same lot on which Cyrus Benson now resides. The 
cove, where Tar was killed is called Tar's Cove to this 
day. A rough stone, unchiselled and unlettered, taken 
from the beach, marks the spot were John Tar, the 
Scotch pirate, is shut in and shut out from battles and 
from grog. 

Turning from such an unpleasant episode in our 



Bay of Fniidy IdnndH and IsUts, 


liistory, arifl refeiTinj? a^jfain to the active Doctor Faxon, 
wo find liini tnrnin;>- his attention to shiphnilcling ; and 
EH ship timher of excellent quality was then abundant 
and eaHv of access, the Doctor had the keel of a sliip 
laid, and between the years 1809-11, launched the first 
and only full-ripfj?ed ship ever built on Grand Manan. 
The doctor must have been co«^itatin{^ on a name for 
his first-born ship, and so bhuidered and wondered 
hiniaclf into the story of ^ooi\ old Za(3harias, who wrote of 
his first-born son, "His name is John ;" and bo Faxon, 
very unseemly, called her — the ship — John. The John 
was about 500 tons burthen, and it is to bo hoped that 
our Orand Manan ship may yet return to her native 
island, laden with spices from "Ceylon's spicy Isle," 
or — ^"costly <?oms from India's coral istrand." Regret- 
fully, we must now bid adieu to the enterprisinf:^ Dr. 
John Faxon, as he, on the declaration of war in 1812, 
hastily put all his property on the island into other 
hands, and returned. to the States, never ajrain return- 
ing even a "flying visit" to his favorite Seal Cove, whore 
many warm friends would have given him ^ truly hearty 
reception. His property, which was considerable, fell 
into the hands of the Ingersolls, Bensons, and others, 
who prosecuted shipbuilding afterwards for a time. In 
1846, the brig Wanderer of 130 tons was launched 
from Benson's shipyard. The Wanderer proved to be 
the last square-rigged vessel built on the island, although 
some very fine schooners since that period have 
been built here — so many that it would be tedious to 
enumerate them all ; and yet, as deserving of special 
notice, may be mentioned the Grape Shot, built by 
Captain Eben Gaskill at North Head ; also the Anglo 
American, built by Hart, Pettes, and Bancroft in 1866. 
Both those vessels were handsome models of naval 
architecture; and the Anglo Anierioiin won the 
deserved reputation of being the fastest sailing vessel 
along the coast of New ■ Brunswick, or that of the State 
of Maine. Her tonnage was one hundred and two tons ; 
and as a "fruiterer" between New York and the West 
Indies, she made the quickest runs of any others on the 
line. The Anglo was a favorite with the islanders — all 
felt proud of her, for she was a trim craft, and could 
leave her "wake" for others to follow after. She sub- 


In Chfirlottc Countif, Sew Bniunirick. 21 

BCfinoiitly hocame the property of a Boston firm, and 
M'fts totally wrecked in the V\»st IndieH. 

In the American War ol 1812, Urand Manan, from 
its isohited position, hncame a favorite rondezvons for 
})rivateers and piratical crafts, and British cruisers had 
many an excitinjj chase to catch thera. On one 
occasion an American privateer eutere.i Grand 
Harbour and seized a vessel in lionny's Brook while 
quietly ridin<? nt anchor. As a cat catchinjij a mouse 
only increases desire for another, so the privateersmen, 
havinj? caught one vessel, felt eager for another, and 
with whetted appetite for a second prize pounced upon 
schooner Sdlly, owned ])y Wooster and Ipi^alis, who 
with becominj^ foretlioupjht, anticipatinpf a visit from the 
Yankee privatet^rs^ had removed a plank from Sallif'x 
bottom, v/hich of course rendered the craft altogether 
unseaworthy. The privateers attempted to repair 
damages, but failed in the attempt, and 'vVooster and 
Ingalls were left in possession of their Sally. At 
another timo Seal Cove was favoured by a visit from one 
of those privateers, who, calling on Joseph Blanchard, 
haughtily demanded a supply of potatoes. Blanchard 
refused to comply with the demand by telling the 
Captain of the privateer that as he wau a British subject 
now, lie would not aiford succor or feed the enemies of 
King George. "However," said he, pointing to the 
potato field, "there- are the potatoes, and if you are 
rascals tnough to steal thera — you must dig them," It 
may have been the plucky spirit evinced by Blanchard, 
that saved him from further aggressions, for an enemy 
always admires true courage, even in his most inveterate 
foe. On another occasion, a British cruiser chased one 
of those privateers so hotly that the privateer ran ashore 
on the western side of the island ; the crew escaping to 
the woods and finding their way to Seal Cove, stole a 
large boat from Alexander McLane , and, as is sup- 
posed, landed buiuiy at Cutler, Me. 

Deep Cove, which lies a few miles southward of Seal 
Cove, was first settled in 1816, by Wm. Henry Silas 
Card and Dyer Wilcox, and the year following by 
William Robinson, by birth a Dutchman and by pro- 
fession a British soldier. Robinson fought under 
General Braddock, and was with the army in the defeat 



Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

at Fort du Quesue, in 1755, and afterwards followed 
the fortune of war throughout the stirring events of the 
revolution. At the close of the war, he located at Yar- 
mouth, N. S., subsequently removed to Grand Manan, 
at Dpep Cove, and finally returned to >' )va Scotia, 
where he died at the uncommonly great age of 110! 
What a life history his must have been ! What a 
volume of 1 10 years' hi<?tory between the cradle and the 
grave ! The grentcst part of this long life spent on 
l)attle-tields, amid human slaughter, the groans of the 
dying, and the blood of the brave ! But Eobinson's 
next trumpet-call will be: ''Arise, ye dead, and come to 
judgment !V 

Daniel McLaughlin, also a disbanded soldier of the 
British army, came to the island and located at Deep 
Cove in the year 1829. He obtained his discharge from 
the Royal Artillery service at Halifax, N. S.; and, in 
common with hundreds of other discharged soldiers, 
received a free grant of land in a new settlement in the 
County of Annapolis, N. S., called Dalhousie Settle- 
ment, in honour of Lord Dnlbonsie, who was at that 
time, 18S9, Governor of Nova Scotia. Those discharged 
soldiers had a generous provision given them by the 
British Government, to enable them to make a success- 
ful beginning for future permanent homes. TLi-ee 
years' rations, served monthly, with military regularity, 
consisting of flottr, pork, peas, &c., — in fact soldiers' 
rations in full, for men, women and children — and 
what would be considered now-a-days a most horrible 
thing, a ration of rum, also monthly. Ti-ue, indeed, 
many drunken sprees occurred — certainly once a month 
— and as there was no enemy to fight, they must needs 
have something monthly more practical among them- 
selves, than a sham fif^ht. In addition to the rations 
each man had giv^n him an axe, hoe, spade, billhook 
and handsaw. Cross-cat saws were served out — on' to 
a certain number of men, also a whip-saw to a certain 
nrmber. Notwithstanding all these encouragements, 
it seemed impossible to manufkcture farmers out of the 
red coats. While rations and rum were provided them 
gratis, many of them managed to erect small log huts, 
and cut wood enough to keep warm in winter ; but, as 
soon us the meat and the drink stopped, scores of them 

t, as 

In Charlotte County, New Brunswick. 

sold out their land for whatever they could ^et for it, and 
scattered throughout the country in every direction. It 
must not be understood, however, that there were no 
exceptions to this class of settlers, for many of them 
proved industrious, temperate and quick to learn the 
method of clearing up a new farm in tlie forest. Some 
of them, too, had drawn poor land, and, as it often is, 
those who less deserved good land, not caring to till it, 
were the persons who drew the lucky ticket ; but on 
their selling out, the industrious and frugal settler 
bought such lots at a mere trifle. 

Daniel McLaughlin maintained a character in the 
settlement for strict sobriety ; but as his lot proved to 
be bfiirren soil, he very reasonably left it, and being like 
Sir Walter Scott very fond of a dog, and Robin Hood 
very fond of hunting, he threw pickaxe and spade to the 
winds, picked up his trusty fowling-piece, whistled up 
his dogs, took his amiable wife and two children with 
him, and turning his back on Dalhoutie Settlement left 
it at once and forever. As has been stated, he found 
his way to Grand Manan, and located at Deep Cove. If 
ever there was a truly loyal subject to the British Gov- 
ernment, and they can be counted by millions, Daniel 
McLaughlin was ono. He was proud of the name of 
"British soldier." In fact his whole bearing was mili- 
tary. His common attitude was as if in the ranks and 
on parade. To see him was to know that he had been ft 
soldier. It was an unfortunate day for the wild sea-fowl 
that visited and frequented the waters aroand Grand 
Manan when the Halifax artilleryman oame too, for his 
aim was almost and ever an unerring one. He loved 
his trusty gun, and doted over it with the fondness of a 
mother for her lost child. 

The writer would here remark that the first and only 
pistol he ever owned, carried, or used, was given him, 
when qu;te a young boy, by Daniel McLaiyi'ldin. Hiis 
son Daniel became a thorough seaman, and has com- 
manded large ships from time to time between San 
Francisco, New York, Boston and other American ports 
and Europe. Another son, he to whom the writer is 
indebted for much material for the present history of 
the island, is the keeper of Ganuet Rock light, and the 
eldest son is the present keeper of Head Harbour light 







Baj/ of Fundy IslaiuU and Islets. 

on Campobello. The younj^est son is settled at Seal 
Cove, and lias much of the warm- hearted friendliness of 
his father. His widow, tliBt faithful wife and affection- 
ate mother, resides wit 'i her son Walter ; Knd although 
the rosy clieek and the coal black hair of her youthful 
days have been furrowed and whitened by length of 
years, yet the kind old lady never wearies in deeds of 
hospitality and attention to strangers. She has two 
daughtera married -and settled on the island, one in 
jiastport, Me., and one in Massachusetts. The hus- 
band and father, having fought life's battle, is at rest. 
It is well. Our friends, they are not dead, but sleep. 

It may not be uninteresting to the reader to take a 
pen excursion at this stage of our history of Grand 
Manan to a few of the islets adjacent tlrereto, and form- 
ing a part of the parish. Nearly opposite Seal Cove, 
and a mile or two distant, an islet of considerable size, 
called Inner Wood Island, forms quite an extensive 
defense from southerly winds to Seal Cove. Outside 
this island lies another, of smaller area, known as Outer 
Wood Island. They were first settled by a man called 
Ger.rald, and subsequently the inner island became the 
property of William Ross, who it is said put a man by 
the name of William Green in charge. John RoSs 
owned the Island of Grand Harbour vicinity, and 
afterwards left the island and resided in St. John City, 
wnere he died. He lived, and died as he lived, a 
bachelor ; and as one cf their sisters married a Thomas, 
whose son Joseph became a resident at Whale Cove, the 
heirs of William Ross, after the lapse of years, began to 
institute their claim of heirship in that island ; but as 
Ross had never disturbed the occupant, nor exacted rent, 
Green remained in peaceable possession until he died ; 
and after his death his sons continued to hold the 
property by possession, and so became not only th« 
»)ccupant8 but owners of that valuable island, without 
•money end without price. 

Inner Wood Island is now divided in ownership be- 
tween two families, Green and Wilcox — or rather Greens 
and Wilooxes, as there is a plurality. Like the Frejch 
Canadians, ti ay shut oat, as by a Chinese wall, all 
others from participating in any nhare or lot or part of 
the land. Thd land is of very go^d quality where ti'led, 

In Charlytte Countij, New Brunauich. 


en s 



and a larj^e part of it is covered with spruce and birch, 
which prove useful for fencing and fuel ; bat were there 
no standing wood, there could be no difficulty in obtain- 
ing from the shore at high water-mark and above it 
abundance of drift-wood, as the supply seems inexhaust- 

Grass grows luxuriantly, and generally proves a 
heavy crop of hay. Oxen, cows and sheep have happy 
times on those islands. The oxen grow fat and strong 
from their calf-hood, having little or nothing to do ; the 
cows go and come as they ))^' ase, with grass to their 
knees in summer, and hay plenty in winter. 

The sheep are as wise as it is possible for sheep to be 
in their day and generation. They have sheltered jooks 
at all parts of the islands, and no matter which way the 
wind blows, the hard-headed old father of the flock leads 
off for a le« retreat ; and blow high or blow low, those 
harmless ones are safe from all harm. At low water 
they march over the rocks, slippery with sea-weod, with 
thft steadiness of goats climbing cliffs, and feed on some 
kind of particular sea- weed with a zest and a relish 
equal to an epicurean seated at his viands. The owners 
of those sheep say that they would keep tat through the 
winter without any other food but that which they get 
among the rocks at low watei*. Those are the sheep 
that need no shepherd — nor care for sheepfold built by 
man. No wild beast to destroy, nor even dog to annoy, 
they live to old age — those that are not sold to batchers 
—at peace with themselves and their only neighbours 
the sea-gulls. 

Mentioning sea-gulls reminds us of a singular habit 
they have. Like all water-fowl, webfooted, but unlike 
all webfooted-fowl, those sea-gulls frequenting the outer 
islands, and making them their homesteads, build theii' 
nestB>, like crows, in th* trees. It is strange, almost unac- 
countably strange ; and the only cause assigned for it is 
that their nests among the rocks were continually i-obbed 
by those who would rather steal eggs than bu^ them ; 
and the poor gulls, after long and serious consultation, 
concluded to do as never webfooted-bird ever did before ; 
and so build their nestS; and lay their eggs, and hatch 
their gull-chicks, high up on a tree among the limbs ! 
The truth of the sea- gull thus building its nest on a tree. 

■ I 



Bay of Fundi/ Idanda and IsleU, 


If I 

is asserted as a fact by the residents of the islandb. What 
u creature must a human creature be, when even a wild 
sea-fowl has to resort to means at variance with its 
natural instincts, to escape the rapacity, the ruthless- 
ness, the cruelty, the raiding; propensity, the inhumanity 
of man to gull ! Yea, eren ''Man's inhumanity to man, 
makes countless thousands mourn." 

A small f^roup of fire small islets, or islands, lie to the 
southward and eastward of the Wood Isles, at a mile or 
two distant. They are generally termed Tliree Islands. 
The largest of the group is known as Kent's Island — 
having been first settled by Captain John Kent, whose 
son, Jonathan Kent, was, at one time, keeper of tht; 
Gannet Rock light, of whom more will be said on 
another page. The names of tho!«e five small islands 
are Kent's Island, Sheep Island, Hay Island, and the 
two smallest in area called Green Islands. There are 
some spots of good tillage on the first named, and ex- 
callent pasture for sheep. There are two rocky islets, 
called Green Island and the White Horse, lying wdirectly 
south of Outer Wood Island — one standing, as it were. 
at each end of it, like ocean sentinels, to guard ike 
passage into Seal Cove. 

Gannet Rock seems deserving of a more extended 
notice. This noted rock bears from it to the south-west 
head of Grand Manan a north-north-west course : 
distance C| miles. It rears its head defiantly above the 
stormy waves of the bay ; and, as far as stony head and 
heart can take delight, appears to preside over the 
fearfully dangerous shoals and ledges within its watery 
domain with the pride and the destructive pleasure of a 
Nero ! The Indians called it Menaskook. It is a 
concrete of flint, pebble-stone and sand, conglomerated 
into a solid mass, forming an acre, more or less, in area. 
It has been the scene of many a dread disaster. It has 
its death-record as well as the Goodwin Sands or Sable 
Island. The moaning winds and the moaotone of the 
surging sea, even when the raging storm is sleeping and 
&t vest, seem to sing in plaintive wail a requiem for 
the lost ones, who, far from the old homestead in their 
native land, met death in its direful form at Gannet 
Rock, whelmed in the angry sea. But let them sleep 
on on their ocean bed. 

In Charlotte Comity, Mew Bninswich. 



The sea will have to yield up from its gi'eat grave of 
many fathoms deep the forms of those, once so dearly 
loved on earth, to meet again and re-unite where nodis- 
tructive elements can ever separate them more. It is a 
happy thought, this resurrected meeting and greeting of 
century-separated dear ones ! 

One of the first shipwrecks, authentically relatod, as 
having occurred at Gonnet Rock, was a hrig bound from 
Boston to the River St. John, N. B., in the year 1759. 
There were, independent of officers and crew, nearly one 
hundred persons, intending settlers in New Brunswick. 
A number were drowned, whose bodies were never re- 
covered. The survivors, passengers and crew, after 
temporarily repairing the only boat saved, landed at 
Deep Cove, where they remained until the next spring, 
when they were taken to L'Etang in a Small sloop. 
'^i In 1831, the brig Rosemont, bound for St. John, 
N. B., with a general cargo, met her doom at Gannet 
Rock ; and in November 1845, the barque Mary, of and 
from London, was also wrecked here, and the second 
raate drowned. 

' Itwas in tlie year 1831 that the commerce of St. John 
City having largely increased, and, as a conseq'tence, 
the shipping of the port increased in equal ratio, that 
the eiiterprising merchants deemed it necessary, for the 
protection of the commercial interests, to crown the head 
of Gannet Rock with a shining light at night. The 
necessity of the case calling for action, the citizens of 
St. John City, with a business activity (for which they 
are noted up to date, and will probably as long as Fort 
Howe looks down upon them, or Hazen's Crows Nest 
smiles in approval), began the work of erection as a 
Government work. It seemed to the Gannets an undue 
interference with time's vetted rights to them ; for 
thousands of sea-fowl had been the undisturbed posses- 
sorg of Menaskook for centuries. Poor Gannets ! 
Dispossessed and summarily of your fair inheritance, 
iit once and forever. 

The name Jphn Purns is identified with Gannet Rock 
lighthouse as the builder ; while Joseph Hogg merits 
mention as the one who put up the lantern, or light- 
room ; and, to make the trio complete, a Captain Lamb 
paid due respect to Ghiistmas-eve, A. d. 1831, by 


Bay of Fundi/ Islands and Islets, 



lighting his lamps, a« the first lighthouse keeper, ou 
that once celebrated home of the Gannets. It was n 
welcome sight to the sailor naviii:atiiifj the Bay of Fundy. 
The wild scream of the sea-gull had departed, and the 
human voice took its place, and tlie art of man 
triumphed. May its luminous gleamings never grow 
less. " 

For four years our favourite Lamb was monarch of 
Gannet Rock. Ever tender and gentle hh a lumh, he 
became pensive on his isolated location — weary of the 
barren rock and its stormy surroundings ; so much so 
that, in 1835, he got transferred to a smaller rock oft" 
jQnaco Head ; but as it is near the mainland, the City 
St. John, and enjoying facilities for participating in 
society's social enjoyments, no wonder he felt pleased to 
leave the Gannet, where neither spring nor summer, 
the gentle rain nor the warm sunshine can vegetate a 
blade of grass or any green thing! A Mr. Miller 
succeeded Captain Lamb with an assistant. Both 
Miller, the principal, and his assistant were di-owned 
in the summer of 1887, when Jonathan Kent, son of 
old Captain John Kent, already mentioned, received the 
appointment, remaining in charge until O tober, a. d. 
1843, at which period lie resigned for an inshore station. 
Henry McLaughlin, the present keeper of Campobello 
light at Head Harbour, succeeded Mr. Kent. The 
successor of Mr. Kent kept the situation until the year 
1853, when he, too, resigned for an inshore station. 
Walter B- McLaughlin, brother of the then keeper, 
entered upon the duty on the rock; and having been 
^,jan assistant previously, from 1845 to 1853, was well 
instructed in the performance of the responsible care 
8iid duty of keeper on such an exposed situation, one 
ever surrounded with danger. In 1845, a stone wall of 
immense thickness waw erected around the tower, in 
order to protect the erection from the fury of the great 
storms so prevalent in the Bay of Fundy. Of the 
respective keepers of the Gannet Rock light, none, as 
the above record shows, kept it half the length of years 
that the present keeper has. True, he has had assist- 
ants from time to time ; so had they ; but as principal, 
he must ever keep watch and ward over this isolated 
rock's light. Mr. Walter B.. McLaughlin's efficiency 

In Charlotte County, New Bruns^wick. 





aiid zeal as lighthouse keeper and fisher}' officer are too 
well known unci too well appreciated hy the Government 
de[)artnient8 to require any additional credit ; but yet, 
in penning a history of Gannet Rock light, his name 
merits honorable mention, and we would not withhold 

Grand Manan up to the year 1854 remained singu- 
larly exempt from toads, frogs, serpents, or snakes — 
not even the sharp bark of the fox was ever heard in 
its deep valleys or on its bill-tops. The island was as 
highly favoured as was Ireland, when the good and the 
great Saint Patrick banished, in his righteous indig- 
nation and by virtue of the power in him vested: 

'•Tottd, serpent and snake 
From bramble and brake." 

Our Gannet RocIj lighthouse keeper took a different 
view of such things altogether ; for to him belongs the 
praise or the blame of introducing that ugly creature, the 
toad, to the island. And, whether wittingly or un- 
wittingly, it seems a remarkable coincidence that the 
introduction of the toad by Mr. McLaughlin uas on ihe 
12th of July — the day celebrated by Orangemen, in 
remembrance of the Battle of the Boyne ! Not content 
with peopling the hitherto toadless island with toads 
he followed it up, by bringing over from the mainland 
fcxes and' frogs in August 1874. It does seem strange 
that the importer of toads should have permitted over a 
score of years to roll on, before he turned his attention, 
with paternal affection, to the frog and the fox ! For want 
of better data, it can only be inferred that he wished to 
provide the islanders with cheap music by night to sing 
them to sleep, after the manner of oriental princes, and 
to raise young Reynards for the trapper's trap and 
sportsman's gun. Although his stock of toads only 
numbered four all told, yet so prodigiously did they 
increase, that in less than twelve years they were found 
on all parts of the island ; and, when the rate of travel 
of his toadship is taken into consideration, it must have 
required a long time to hop the toad-hop from the 
vicinity of Deep Cove at Southern Head to Eel Brook 
at North Head, over twenty miles, attending to toad-pro- 
creation in the meantime. 

John Wilson, Esq., of Chamcook, Parish of St. 



Bay of Fundif Islands and Islets, 





Andrews, brought over deer to the island fthout the 
year 1845, and they niultiph'ed rapidly. Indians, and 
whites as well, killed them at all seasons of the year, 
until by Legislative enactment this wholesale slaughter 
has been prohibited. And yet the stealthy Indian, as 
hungry as a panther for venison, will occasionally shoot 
down a deer, and paddle away the meat to Pleasant 
Point, near Eastport, Me. 

The American hare (rabbit) was introduced here from 
Nova Scotia by William Green — the same person, who 
80 fortunately, became proprietor of Inner Wood Island, 
near Seal Cove, by being put on it as occupant-in -charge 
by good old William Eoss, as already related. About a 
quarter of a century has passed away since the rabbit 
obtained firm foothold on Grand Manan soil ; and, like 
the toad, they are now numerous on all parts of the 

Having detained the reader the while at the southern 
end of the island and its adjacent isles, it is necessary 
to move along and tarry a brief hour or two at Grand 
Harbour, M'ith its contiguous White Head and smr>.Jler 
isles adjacent to it. 

Grand Harbour only requires more depth, sufficient 
depth of water, at all times of tide, to make it deserving 
of the name "Grand" in its widest use. The view sea- 
^yard is delightful, and the harbour is long and broad 
enough to receive quite a fleet, did not the tide at low 
wat^er leave such a breadth of beacli. It is an irremedi- 
able obstacle to vessels of large tonnage as a desired 
port for ingress and egress at all times of tide, and yet 
a considerable trade is carried on at Grand Harbour. 
Isaac Newton, Esq., prosecutes a large share of the 
mercantile business of the island, has a convenient wharf 
extending from his store, and large-sized schooners load 
and discharge cargo without difficulty. The handsome 
and large residence, built by Mr. Newton a few years 
ago, and costing some three thousand dollars, will bear 
a favourable comparison with many a wealthy merchant's 
laansion, of suburban elegance, of architectural style and 
finish. There are several fine houses at Grand Harbour. 
Turner Wooster, Esq., of Her Majesty's Customs, 
owns and occupies a very fine cluster of buildings. 
Allen Guptill, John D. Guptill, and others, including 

: -tfi 

In Charlotte County, Neit Brunswick. 


Mr. John Dapgett, have convenient and tasty dwellings; 
and the evidences are all around there, that plenty fur 
iwtan and heast is the order of the day. 

There is a new schoolhouse here, which, having been 
recently erected, is a most creditable acquisition to 
Grand Harbour. 

The Free Will Baptists have a neat place of worship, 
and the congregation numbers, perhaps, the major part 
of the residents of the harliour and vicinity. 

The Episcopal Church is a stone edifice, and the Rev. 
W. S. Covert is the present missionary ; whose urbanity 
and kindness towards the people, generally, have won 
him many friends outside the people of his charge He 
takes a lively interest in the cause of temperance, and 
lectures or debates on the platform with an earnestness 
only surpassed by his pulpit ministrations. 

The first Episcopal Church at Grand Harbour was a 
wooden structure ; and of the circumstances attending 
its destruction, we would fain draw a veil over them ; 
but, as narrating events connected with the island's 
history, the withholding of the particulars would be suf- 
ficient to subject the writer to holding a pusillanimous 
pen — a charge not intended to be deserved. 

Regretfully, then (from a sermon preached by the then 
Rector, Rev. John Dunn, on the 18th October 1839 at 
Grand Harbour, on the 15th at North Head, and on the 
16tli at Seal Cove — a copy of which sermon, in print, is 
now before the writer^, the following particulars are here 
presented. It may be neither uninteresting nor un- 
necessary to quote from a * 'statement of the proceedings 
arising from the burning of the church," as follows : < 

"Whereas, on the night of Wednesday, the 9th of 
October 1839, at about 12 o'clock, the whole interior of 
St. Paul's Church in this parish was discovered to be in 
flames, which in about one hour consumed the building ; 
and, whereas, certain circumstances (particularly the 
suspending in front of the church, from a triangle, a 
figure, in which was found a paper, conbiining 
language which betokens premeditated malevolence 
and hostility against the Bishop of the Diocese, against 
the Rector of this parish in particular, and four other 
persons of this county) prove it to be the work of an 
incendiary; its destruction also attempted by fire ?t 

I i 



Bay of Fiuidy Islands and Islets^ 





f i! 

i !i 


Easter in the previous year, 1838, prove that the burn- 
ing of the church with the atrociously agf^ravated 
circumstances attending: it, demand the ex])refisiou of 
an unqualified abhorrence of the deed and its perpe- 

The above, as quoted from the statement, is sufScient, 
without copying it entire. The statement thus ends its 
closing paragraphs : *'A list was attached to the fore- 
going, containing the names of the wardens and vestry, 
fourteen in number, with 124 others. 

"With the church were consumed the gown, surplice, 
books and pall. Within the week the oi^rings of female 
friends, amounting to nearly thirteen pounds, were 
presented to the minister for the purpose of replacing 
his gown and surplice. And ere the ashes of the ruined 
church were .scarcely cold, a subscription paper was 
opened for the erection of a new chureb, which within 
three days embraced 125 names, amounting to over 
two hundred and sixty pounds. 

**And the last and not least interesting circum- 
stance, showing the zeal and warm feeling which this 
most deplorable event has produced among all classes 
of persons in this parish, was the presenting a subscrip- 
tion list from forty Sabbath-school children, with their 
collection, amounting to about twenty shillings. 

"(Signed) John Dunn, Bector. 
"Philip Newton, \ 
"Thos. Redmond, J 


The afflicted pastor evinces so much of the spirit of 
» Saint Paul under trial and affliction, that it would not 
be doing justice, under the circumstances, to leave this 
painful subject without presenting several extracts, as 
elucidating the spirit of the pastor on the occasion — 
selecting for his text part of the 9th verse of the 6th 
chapter of Micah, which reads thus : "Hear ye the rod 
and who hath appointed it." 

In the opening paragraph of his discourse, the grieved 
pastor said : "I stand before you, under circumstances 
so highly aggravated in their nature, that I believe the 
record of the Christian Church furnishes but few, and 
in this country no parallel. 

"This is a picture of extreme hardness of heart, per- 

In Charlotte County, Neiv BrnnKicirl. 











I rod 

I the 


versenesfl and rebellion against tho Almi}:?bty. Selfish- 
ness, Home imaf];inaiy pleasuro, or unholy {^ratification, 
are tho sources of nil vici^and i inie, and such as are 
actuated by tlicse base motives can scarcely be rcstr;uned 
except by Divine judp^raeuta." 

The preacher, while propfressinj^ with his discourse, 
expatiated on the inRtructions contained in his text, 
applying them to those under bereavement by tho loi« of 
their Church, and impressing them with God's dealings 
with His people ; that afflictions are sometimes permitted 
to overtake and visit them, as reproofs and corrections 
for sin, lukewarmness and backsliding. One sentence, 
cited from the sermon in the preacher's own worda, will 
suffice on this part of it. 

"And whether God atllict His creatures in love or in 
^vrath, whether He afflict them for instruct!' n or for 
correction, our first duty under the rod is t become 
sensible of His justice, and that He willeth our good." 

After thus deducing arguments from the text, for the 
inculcation of pious resignation, humility and penitence 
under the trying dispensation, the preacher approaches 
the subject of the deed and the perpetrators of it in this 

"And what can I say? What need I Bay ? Your 
eyes behold a deed has been done, brethren, at our very 
doors, before our eyes, at the bare hearing of which the 
heart of every Christian man and woman must sink 
within them ; — a deed the sight of which, in the hour of 
midnight darkness, was terrific and appalling beyond 
description, which none can fully imagine, but those 
who beheld that devouring flame, which completely 
filled those consecrated walls ; who saw those naked 
beams, and watched that tower, whole and unscorched, 
slowly and solemnly inclining and settling through the 
rafters into the furnace kindled by the sacrilegious 
hand of man ! Truly, it fell as if it were saying to its 
destroyer, who might have still been within sight of it, 
'Look at me, behold me falling, and let it never be 
effaced from your vision ; let it descend with you to your 
grave, and rise with you to judgment.' " 

And now the preacher waxes warm while on this part 
of his discourse. He feels, as it were, the whole weight 
of this diabolical midnight act pressing upon his 






Bay of Fnndy Inhuuh and Islets, 


troubled soul ; and like one of the olden propheta, 
zealons for the Lord of Hosts, and the honour of His 
name, and the sacividneHS o£His temple on earth, thus 
proceeds : 

"A deed hat been done — what ihall we call it? 
Against whom has the offence been committed ? Against 
the Hying God — th« Witness of all deeds, open and 
secret, against the Majesty of Heaven the attack has 
been made I Tthe God whom Christians worship, has 
been insulted and profaned. And, thought, fearful 
and alarming, it he amojig ut, that hardened man, who 
neither fears God nor regards man, he who did this 
deed now composing a part of this congregation ? If he 
is within the sound of my voice, surely he must possess 
the fspirit of a fiend, else his blood mnet chill in his 
veins. God forbid, my Christian hearers, that our- 
selves, our families, and our beloved sanctuary should 
have been within the influence of such a pestilence.'* 
After indulging in such anathema of righteous indig- 
nation, the preacher turns his weeping eyes towards the 
scene of the sacrilegious fire ; and, touching plaintively 
the tender theme of woe and bereavement, says : 

"The altar before which some have knelt to receive 
from the highest onler of our ministry, and renewed their 
baptismal covenant; the altar around which husband 
and wife, parent and child, have knelt side by side, have 
devoutly reseived the emblems of the body and blood of 
their dying Saviour, have eaten and drunk thereof, and 
had their souls nourished by faith, as their bodies are by 
foo I ; that desk, from which iias ascended the sacrifice 
f uraise and prayer ; that pulpit, from which so many 
sermons have been delivered with the view of instilling 
the pure doctrines and salutary truths of the blessed 
Gospel into the hearts of the hearers ; and, lastly, those 
walls, which have enclosed the mortal remains of those 
near and dear to many of you — these, brethern, are the 
objects which you have lost, which were rendered so 
valuable and dear from various associations. 

"That edifice, consecrated to the worship of God. 
What has become of it ? Over its ashes you bigh, you 
mourn, you shed the silent tear ; that temple, with its 
altar, its bible, books of devotion, and its vestments, 
have fallen a sacrifice in the space of one short hour, to 


In Charlotte Count u. New Bnnisicick. 


the sRcrilepriouB incendinrj'." And now the preacher in 
liiH couchidiii^ paragraphs, turns to the ro-huililinnr of 
another house, wherein to "worship the God of their 
fathers. The appeal, it seeniR, was not in vain. With 
the zeal of an Apostle, and the courage of a martyr, he 
sayfl : 

"If the friends of the church will hold up my hands, 
by their cheerful, sincere and consistent countenancn; 
by their united and earnest prayers to their Heavenly 
Father, and by usin^ their own exertions (unless I 
fall m^-self a prey to the midnight incendiary or as- 
sassin), and if God continues my health, in twelve 
months from the night in which the blaze and smoke of 
our late church ascended to the heavens, the incense of 
prayer and praise shall ascend from the altar of another 
church, to that God who giveth and who taketh, who 
ruleth in the armies of Heaven, and amidst the children 
of men." 

The preacher's hands were **holden up," the "friends 
of the church" did lend cheerful aid, they did "use their 
own exertions," and God did continue to the pastor 
health, and did bless the efforts made to rebuild another 
edifice to His worship, and the preacher's resolve was 
fulfilled, and his heart was gladdened, at seeing the top- 
stone of the present stone church at Grand Harbour 
brought forth with joy and thanksgiving. Thus endeth 
the account of the burning of the church on Grand 
Manan, October 9th, 1839. 

It is refreshing to turn from such a painful theme 
and description as the one just related, to speak of the 
present improved condition of Grand Harbour, in ijom- 
mon with all parts of the island, as compared with it in 
its earlier periods. It is only a very few years since 
lobster factories became a business. The first opening 
of this branch of fishing industry was the work of Mr. 
John Cook, who had previously followed the profession 
of a druggist in Carleton, St. John. It was about the 
year 1858, some eighteen years ago. His factory was 
near the residence of Philip Newton, Esq., of whom he 
bought the privilege, built a dwelling-house, erected 
suitable buildings for the canning of lobsters, and gave 
employment to many hands. Those canned lobsters 
were exported to Scotland, via St. John, N. B., and the 





36 Bay of Ftindy Idands and Islets', 

business becoming remunerative, Mr. Ccok in a few 
.years accumulated quite a handsome competence, re- 
paired the losses of an unsuccessful dru({-8hop. and 
returned from the island to Carleton, where he enjoyed 
up to the time of his death the fruits of his industry on 
Grand Manan in the lobster trade. 

One of his sons, followinnj in the footsteps of his 
father, entered into the same busiuess on Deer Island — * 
but not with that success attending it which his more 
judicious parent experienced. Another son, having 
married the daughter of Cochran Craig, Esq., undertook 
the business on this island ; but not prospering in it, . 
abandoned the lobsters and opened a {/holograph saloon 
at Woodward's Cove. Not succeeding, according to his 
expectations, in dealing with the "human face divine," 
lie soon disposed of his materials, and emigrated, 
whence he had come, to Carleton, St. John, N. B. He 
was a very unassuming young man — mild as a lamb, 
gentle and kind — too gentle to throw live lobsters into 
a boiling cauldron. Mr. Cook, the ex-druggist, having 
thus introduced the cooking and canning of lobsters, and 
having proved it under his management a success, it was 
not to be expected that the busineis would be allowed to 
die out; consequently, in a short time, another lobster 
factory was started at Seal Cove by Bradford & Hartt, 
which gave employment to many and became a source 
of profit to the proprietors. A firm in Boston, Under- 
wood & Co., having learned of the successful operations, 
felt a desire to have a hand in the trade ; and having 
purchased a lease-privilege from Turner Wooster, 
Esq., which was admirably situated for carrying it on 
extensively, this Bos Ionian activity soon erected a 
cluster of buildings, outstripping all previous facilities. 

Mr. Mitchell, a Scotchman, the superintendent and 
agent, became much esteemed ; and lobsters, in tons of 
weight, were brought to Wooster's Wharf at Grand 
Harbour to exchange their green jackets for red, and 
then stripped by the nimble hands of youths and maidens, 
pressed into tin cans, and being hermetically sealed, 
packed in boxes and sent off to satisfy the almost uni- 
versal desire of the lover of shell-fish v/itb canned 
lobsters. Mr. Mitchell gives employment to four tin- 
smiths, twenty-four men and boys, and fifteeia girls, 

In Charlotte County ^ Neit\ Brumwicli. 87 






I it, 






, and 
i was 
)d to 
t on 
d a 

ns of 

total fortv-tbree liandcj iu the factory. Until the adveut 
of Mr. John Cook no idea was entertained of the im- 
mense numbers of lobsters froquentinpf the shores of 
Grand Manan. It would seem ahnost incredible that 
such vast multitudes of them were in the waters around 
the island ; but the "traps" settled the matter, and the 
rocks and ledges, the coves and inlets proved the harvest 
fields, from which was fished up by the trap-system 
those delicious greenbacks which, by a remarkable coin- 
cidence, average betimes 80 cents to the hundred lbs. — 
just about the value of a greenback dollar. 

The lobster factory at Grand Harbour is yet in progress, 
and probably will not he discontinued until the supply 
is exhausted, which may not be in the present day and 
generation, nor for centuries. In one season the Grand 
Harbour factor}- received 625,559 lbs. of live lobstcrc, 
and canned from thum 125,865 lbs. 

The shells of the lobsters are carted away from the 
factory and spread over grass-ground, and prove very 
valuable as a top-dressing fertilizer. True, while sub- 
ject to the decaying process, olfactorily considered, one 
would hardly feel strongly inclined to partaka of the 
meat late encased in such a shell. Sometimes the 
shells are spread over the ground and ploughed in ; 
either way, those shells are excellent for crops. 

Grand Harbour has many of the means within itself 
to form a neat, pretty village, were the houses and other 
buildings more compact — for instance, its church, meet- 
ing house, schoolhouse, customs house, magistrate's 
office, stores and lobster factory. It lacks a black- 
smith's shop, hotel, cordwainer's shop, &o., to fill up 
the village requirements. The schoolhouse is the 
best on the island. Its schoolrooms are on the 
ground floor, where they ought to be. As it is, 
however. Grand Harbour, as being located at nearly 
the central part of the island, must comm:md a promi- 
nent position. 

The customs office originated here during Sir John 
A. Hacdonald's premiershipj and while our present 
Lieut. Governor, Hon. S. L. Tilley, was Minister of 
Customs at Ottawa. The appointment of customs 
officer was oftered to Isaac Newton, Esq., who thought 
fit to refuse it, and the present officer. Turner Wooster, 


Bay of Fundy Idands and Islets y 




Esq., having accepted it, keeps himself in good fellow- 
ship both with the people and the department. 

The islanders, from its first and earliest history, had 
bought ana sold and traded with a freedom from 
restraint which their peculiarly isolated position fully 
justified, and which seemed to every thinking; mind as 
meet and right they should. Following, the laborious, 
precarious and ha&ardous vocation of fishing, it seemed 
ungenerous and severe to compel the poor fisherman to 
pay a tax on his flour, pork, molasses, tea, cotton, and 
the various other articles of food and clothing — even to 
the pipe in his mouth, the tobacco to fill it, and the 
match to light it. • 

Grand Manan, situate as it is miles away from the 
mainland — shut-out for a great part of the summer 
from a sight of it, and in the winter sepr ^*ed for days 
and weeks by the fearful storm« whic : .^ over the 
bay, thus debarred from participating in the various 
facilities enjoyed by residents on the mainland — to tax 
those islanaers, or to saddle their overburdened backs 
with a customs officer, to make them pay tribute to 
Caesar, was not thought of uiitil the confederation of the 
provinces. But as oar Dominion of Canada is increas- 
ing in population — ^its public works and its salaried 
officers increasing — taxation must needs increase too. 
From the Governor General, down to the poor char- 
woman who dusts the desks of witless scribes in the 
Governmental offices, money, money, money mu'^t he 
paid; and as the people of this great Dominior j i«f» 
pay the money to the taxgatherers, to this great '^c ' le 
people of the islands in the Bay of Fundy must pay <,.<'• 
And Money sings: 

"In the nation's halls I proudly stand, 
^ For I hold the price in tny good right hand 

Of member, minister, senator^ all 
I buy th'^m up, both great and smfc^ll. 
I buy their honor, manhood and truth — 
They'd sell what they call their souls in sooth. 
And their empty lives at my feet would fling, 
For I am Money, and money is King." 

It is their loyalty that keeps them passive uudtjr ex- 
treme pressure ; and although those islands possess 
unequalled facilities for landing goods of all Hnds 
clandeBtineiy, yet so coneoientious are the people, gener- 





In Charlotte County, New Brunauick. 89 

ally, especially the traders, thai when goods are landed 
at any part of the Island (Grand Manan^ the importer 
starts oflf for Woodward's Cove and the "receipt of 
custom" with the speed of Weston, the walker, or 
Goldsmith Maid, the trotter! The islanders will 
neither eat nor drink nor wear any contraband articles. 
So are they the truly loyal subjects of the Dominion of 
Canada. Let the reader, if not an islander, go and do 

woodward's cove. 

Leaving Grand Harbour and arriving at Woodward's 
Cove, quite a village-looking settlement is here. Here, 
is Small's large house, where food can be had by the 
hungry, lodging for the sleepy, drink for the thirsty. 
Here are two blacksmith shops, a schoolhouse and a 
temple. Hv'^re are several stores, well filled with a 
general assortment of provisions, clothing, and "stores" 
of all kinds to meet the wants of the fishermen. Only 
three or four years ago Mr. John Fraser, of St. Stephen, 
who had been engaged a long time in that town in 
mercantile business, relinquished his extensive trade 
there and came to Grand Manan and opened a trade at 
Woodward's Cove. Mr. Fraser is a remarkable man-"*- 
totally blind, having lost both eyes aboui v outy years 
ago and an arm by blasting a large stone in St. Stephen. 
He took up trading on a small scale, but by persever- 
ance, good business tact, and an indomitable resolution 
to succeed, prospered under the smile of kind Providence, 
and became a well-to-do-trader. He has purchased real 
estate at the cove, put up and carries on a large trade 
in a large building. Besides, has erected smoke-houses, 
built a wharf, a unique schooner — the E. A. Fraser — and 
made other improvements. Why ho elected the island 
in preference to the commercial metropolis of the Saint 
Croix River, is a domestic, commercial or political 
problem which no one can solve as well as himself. At 
all events, his emigrating here has given an impetus to 
tr^de at the place of his location which must have a 
beneficial effect long in the future. His son keeps the 
post-office at the cove in his father's store, and that 
of itself is no trifling accommodation to the people of 
the covd and its vicinity. Another large store, well- 




Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

I i; 


lillfcd, is kept by Nelson Saiall, a naturalized American, 
who ciirae here about the time the southern war was 
vaginj":, who began trading on a small scale ; but by dint 
of perseveiTince and ingenuity has run the race of com- 
I>etition successfully with Mr. Fraser. There it also a 
cooper shop at this cove, under the skillful care of an 
industrious man by the name of George Anderson. 

In 1867, quite an exciting scene was ^dtnessed at^ 
Woodwarc's Cove. A whale that it seems had become" 
exceedingly anxious to breakfast on some nice fat 
herring had quite unwittingly enterod within the pre- * 
cincts of a brush weir, built for the very purpose of 
catching herring and all such comers. His whaleship, 
once in the weir, and having regaled himself to his 
Veart's content, and touching bottom occasionally, began 
:• feel apprehensive that all was not right, and so 
turned tail to the village and headed for the deeper 
water s of the bay. The stakes and the brush felt the 
unusual pressure, but refused to give way. He had 
entered as a great intruder, a bold robber, a rapacious 
monster of the deep, and, if possible, must be held in 
durance vile and be made pay the penalty of his 
temerity. The news spread over the island with aston- 
ishing rapidity that a whale was caueht in a weir 
at Woodward's Cove and there was more excitement, 
more "hurrying to and fro," than there was in 
"Belgium's capital by night," where fair women and 
brave men had whirled in the voluptuous dance, till 
startled by the war trumpet's blast calling — **to arms, to 
arms!" Our islanders went for the whale on the run from 
many points of the compass. The late Lorenzo Drake made 
for the scene of action with the coolness and yet the 
speed of a regular whalesman. Armed with a harpoon 
— that weapon which art has made the most suitable 
wherewith to pierce the blubber-flesh of this monster 
of the deep, the whale — a large number of people having 
collected, the battle began in te>'rible earnestness. The 
harpoon struck the whale, ho lashed mightily his tail, 
the' weir gave way, oars were in play, he made for sea, 
boats gallantly headed him to the shore, where bleeding, 
he breathed no more. This great fish was towed up to 
high water mark at the cove, cut up, and the oil, when 
divided among the stockholders, proved to be quite a 

Iti CharJotfn Covvtjf, New Brunswick. 




L 80 

d iu 
, to 




liandsome dividend. This brief fish story is nnlike 
many fifh stories — it is true. 

The temple, of which mention has been made, de- 
serves more than a passing notice. It was erected by 
the efforts of a Mr. Cook, Baptist Minister, aifled by the 
exertions of the zealous island ladies who are ever 
foremost in all prood works. Subsequenth', it became 
the property of Mr. Joseph Lakeman, of Woodward's 
Cove ; and about that time Elder George Garraty, the 
present pastor of the "Christians or Disciples of Christ" 
Church, Duke Street, St. John, N. B,, came to the 
island and soon made several converts to his faith, 
among whom wa« Mr. Lakeman — perhaps the most 
zealous of them all. The temple was dedicated by Elder 
Garraty, and was afterwards known as Garraty's Temple, 
and by others, and with more propriety, as the Chris- 
tians' Temple. Then another change came o*er, not the 
"spirit, of the dream," but the spirit of some of the 
people. Elder Garraty left the island, and a new sect 
arrived — preachers of the Joe Smith creed, professing 
to possess the gift of tongues, power of healing and 
other gifts, such as the prophets and apostles of old 
possessed. Mr. Lakeman now became a convert to this 
religion, and having much natural talent, fair education, 
fluency of speech, a mind enriched by read.jg, study, and 
a retentive memory, and deeply imbued with pious 
feeling withal, he was a "chosen vessel" among the 
prophet's disciples, and was soon ordained to eldership 
among those Latter Day Saints. The temple now be- 
came known as the Mormon Temple ; but until Elder 
Lakeman embraces polygamy as part of his faith, the 
name Mormon is illegitimate ; and, therefore, in keep- 
ing with its present sectprian position, it may be 
regarded as the Temple of the Saints. Independent of 
the various changes of Elder Joseph Lakeman's religious 
opinions, one opinion is entertained of him by all his 
acquaintances — in kindness, uniformity of moral 
excellence, an untarnished integrity, and good fellowship 
and Christian love and charity towards all mankind, Mr. 
Lakeman has remained unchanged. It would be well 
for l^righam Young and all the Salt Lake Mormons, if 
they could exhibit as unimpeachable a record. 

The temple is a large building, having no outwai'd 





Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets. 

decorations — a ploiu specimen of the plainest style of 
architecture — unadorned by any paint or paintings 
within or without — and yet its site can hardly be excelled 
on the island. On high ground, about one fourth of a 
mile eastward from the cove village, it overlooks many 
of the smaller islands and a large portion of the Bay of 
Fundy ; and as a central stand-point, the eye sweeps 
around the entire island and the horizon. The belfry is 
in keeping with th« building, and although no bell ever 
sent forth a sound from it to call the church-goers to- 
gether for worship, yet this humble, unassuming cupola 
became the chosen location of a burglar, named Archibald 
Downey, in the latter part of the month of April 1876, 
where he deposited bread, milk, ham, pork, butter, 
dried apples, molasses, together with sundry utensils 
and articles for bechelor hcusekeeping in the belfry. 
Downey had chosen a lovely, airy and healthy little 
home for himself : the outlook, too, was delightful ; but 
he happened to look out at one time, at the wrong time, 
as will hereafter appear. Having on Saturday night, 
the 24th of April, made a raid on Mr. James Smith, by 
entering his house, and cleaning out the pantry of 
all its eatable contents, this accomplished burglar retired 
to the beKry with his heavy burden of provisions smack- 
ing his lips, doubtless, in anticipation of the rich feast 
he would spread for himself on the coming Sabbath — 
perhaps flattering himself with the idea of dining on 
savory meets high up in his belfry home, while Elder 
Lakeman would feed his flock v/ith spiritual food below. 
There is not much stretch, if any, of the imagination in 
this, for Downey the burglar was well read and fond of 
reading. Besides, on his examination trial at North 
Head, he stated that on Sunday morning and previously 
he had "got a book up in the belfry, which he read, and 
knew it was a Mormon book." As a specinaen of his 
ready wit, the following may be given. On the magistrate 
asking him how he could see in the darkness of night 
to collect such a variety of articles in Smith's pantry, 
he replied — "By the aid of the elementary light, called 
moon." The Sabbath morning following the robbery, 
and while several men were searching for the robber, 
Downey hearing voices below looked out of his sacred 
storehouse ; and on some one looking up as he looked 

In Charlotte Conuty, New Brunstvick. 


)D in 
id of 









down he became, the observed oi'the observers. An ascent 
was s( Ti made to the belfry, and there wis the tenant, 
8ur>i3iii:Cled with mftny of the good things of this life, 
w'hich he had obtained without money, but not without 
price — the price of incarceration — as having been arrest- 
ed, tried and convicted, he was sent to the penitentiary 
for two years and six months. Thus endeth the reading 
of the temple. 

There is a brisk trade at almost all seasons of the 
year here ; indeed, its central location, as well as Grand 
Harbour, is admirably situated to command a large 
share of custom. White Head Island, having quite a 
large and an increasing population, contributes largely 
to the trade of Woodward's Cove. It is sometimes called 
Fisher's Cove, as "Old Squire Fisher," as he was 
familiarly termed, long resided and died there. 

His son, John Fisher, was born on Grand Manan and 
is well known and highly respected in Eastport, Me., as 
proprietor of an express agent of&ce and other business 
affairs. He cherishes a warm feeling for his native 
island and is ever ready and pleased to attend to any 
requests from any of the people of the island who require 
his counsel, direction or services. 

A grandson of Old Squire Fisher, a few years ago, 
left Eastport, Me., and established a henery on High 
Duck Island, which had been the property of his grand- 
father. Young Alexander, perhaps, in his henery 
enterprise has accomplished more real good than his 
namesake of olden time, who rode the conqueror of 
battle fields, trampling the gory victims of his mad 
ambition beneath the iron-shod hoofs of his proud 
charger, Butephalus. Our Alexander, in keeping with 
the name of his island, has added ducks to his poultry 
yards, and the crowing of roosters, the cackling of hens, 
the quacking of ducks and ganders and geese mnke 
quite a lively scene and a noisy one withal on High 
Duck Island. The multitudinous throats of Alexander's 
feathered bipeds have completely drowned the screams of 
the gulls around High and Low Duck Islands, which 
bloodless victory is worthy of all praise; the ducks 
holding high carnival on High Duck Island. 

If i -J:. 1 


|!! in 

■ ill II ■ 


Bay of Fundy Ishinds and Islets, 


Of White Head much could be written. It ia 
peculiarly situated, gjeographically, with the main island 
of Grand Manan. For ahout two hours before low water, 
and at the first two hours flood nearly, access can he 
had to White Head without hoat — the ledji^es and sand- 
bars permitting travel on foot, although there are narrow 
places where the water runs sh(ml and somewhat swiftly, 
but presenting no great obstacle to a safe {ind speedy 
tramp from Grand Manan to White Head. At all other 
times of tide, boats must be used ; and then White 
Head is an island, being completely surrounded by 
water ; but before low water and at tlie first of the flood, 
as already stated, the ledges and sand-bars form a little 
isthmus ; when tae White Head island that was, is, for 
the time being, a peninsula. Such is the anomalous 
geographical peculiarity of White Head of Grand 

The t-esidents of White Head are under many disad- 
Tantages, which the inhabitants of the main island 
enjoy ; and of them all, the want of proper mail accom- 
modation is not the least. The people there feel strongly 
the need of a regular postal delivery of newspapers and 
letters; and although Isaac Ne-wton, Esq., of Grand 
Harbour and parties at Woodward's Cove are aLrays only 
too happy in eiforts to forward papers, letters, parcels, 
&c., to them, yet the forwarding is precarious and 
UP certain ; and even when conveyed by one of them- 
selves, they may be taken to a houLe far from their 
destination, on White Head, remaining for days until 
chance takes them on. It has been mooted from time 
to time', to stir up action on the part of the postal 
powers that be, towards having direct and regular 
postal communication with White Head, in common 
with other parts of the island ; and as hope, if not too 
long delayed, is as an anchor to the soul, so the people 
hope on, in cherished anticipation that the White Head 
of Grand Manan will bo duly reverenced, and not only 
reverenced but accommodated with a post-office. Then 
■will the silver-sprinkled head of the Post-Office Inspector 
be honored by all the White Headers, and mutual 
happiness exist. 

In Charlotte County , New Brunswick. 





The principal fishing at White Head is the herring 
fishing in weirs. Those weir-herring are principally all 
smoked, and, consequently, the preparation of so many 
thousand of boxes of smoked herring, from the time they 
are taken out of the weirs, all shining and silvery-scaled, 
until they are ready for the gridiron, keeps many hands 
busily and profitably employed. 

There is a Free Will Baptist meeting house here and 
also a schoolhouse. The people, generally, are moral, 
honest and industrious. Circumstances occasionally of 
an unpleasant nature occur, but, in praise of White 
Head, it may be said that they originate chiefly with 
fishermen and others who visit the place only for a time, 
and not the permanent residents. 

This st&te of things may be regarded as an index to 
other parts of Grand Manan — indeed, to the island and 
its islands generally. The introduction of many new- 
comers have introduced as well, many unpleasant 
episodes in the history of Grand Manan at the present 
day ; but as an increasing population ever adds its bad 
with its good, and too frequently in corresponding ratio, 
to keep the field wholly free from the thistle, brier, 
and hurtful weed cannot be. It is too much to be 
expected. ' 

White Head obtained its name, doubtless, from its 
white appearance, which beari some slight resemblance 
to the white, chalky cliffs of Albion. Viewed at a dis- 
tance from a deck at sea, it presents a dreary and 
UDinviting aspect, and to a mariner a dread, with a wish 
that no fortuitous event may ever cast him on its grim- 
lookingf rooks. A, nearer approach, however, soon dispels 
those unfavorable impressions, and the verdure of little 
fertile spots, comfortable cottages, smoke-houses, and 
the merry laugh of childhood ringing out like the sweet 
chiming of Sabbath-bells, the lowing of cattle, the 
bleating of aheep, and the numerous white sails of 
sharp-shaped boats, dotting every nook, cove and inlet, 
fills the heart of the weather-beaten tar with thoughts of 
former days and boyhood scenes in his own land ; and, 
her.ving a sigh of regret at their departure, would fain 
laud and live at White Head. It is from a point of 
land jutting out at the eastern part of Grand Hurbour 
that foot passengers to White Head take their departoro 


Bay of Fnndy Islands and Islets, 


!i; !: 



If!-: ■- 



— two islands, Harbour Island and Green Island, lyinpf 
between the said point of departure and White Head. 
This important part of the Parish of Grand Manan will 
ever hold a prominent position in the progress of the 
parish, and must commend itself to governmental con- 
sideration too strongly to be disregarded. 

On leaving Woodward's Cove, and coming on towards 
^ orth Head, about two and a half miles, brings you to 
a pretty little straggling village called 


It may have obtained its first name after an old 
Englishman, John Sinclair, who had resided there, and 
where his sons and their familfes yet reside, although 
Sinclair lived on the western side of the island at Dark 
Harbour for about a quarter of a century — a sequestered 
and dark spot, indeed, for a man to spend the one-third 
and more of his allotted years. Centreville contains a 
store, a blacksmith shop, a saw-mill, a schoolhouse, an 
undertaker's shop and several farms in its vicinity. The 
Griffin Brothers firm of Eastport carried on quite a 
trade here some years ago, and also a Mr. Lawrence, 
now in Boston. This little village, progressing in 
common with other parts of the island, began to feel ite 
importance ; and not choosing to be called Sinclairville, 
adopted the name of Centreville, by which substituted 
appellation it will probably ever be known. 

Centreville has now mail facilities weekly, and this 
convenience although not perfected has largely tended 
to give gi'eater interest to a desire for reading, which of 
itself is no trifling consideration . It is a very pleasant 
place during summer sunshine ; but when an easterly 
storm sweeps the bay, the breaking of the sea against 
the shore, with the roar of the tempest, is simply, 
sublimely terrific. 

Centreville seems to be a favorite location for American 
squatters, and others from other shores. They seem to 
tak« to it as a duck to the water. What the attractive 
power is that draws them to it is unknown. Yet the 
fact ii all the same. Upon the whole, Centreville hat 
many advantages, and the people, being industrious and 
generally frugal, are quite comfortable. Before leaving 
Centreville, it may not be out of place to remark that a 

In Charlotte County, New Brunswick. 47 

convenient edifice for relii^ious worship would be a 
standing monument of their piety, and would free them 
from the incouTenience of eominj^f to North Head, or 
jfoing to Woodward's Cove or Grand Harbour or a 

Wharf accommodation at lome part of Centreville is 
much needed ; and if the money uselessly expended on 
lighthouses on the St. Croix Kiver and St. AndrftwgBay 
was expended on wharves on Grand Manan and the 
other islands of Charlotte County, the benefit would 
be felt even in the Government coflfers. 




I the 




it a 


This particular district of the Parish of Grand Manan, 
ceitainly calls for special notice. Her« is the general 
distributing post-office. Here is the main harbour of the 
island. Here ia the Swallow Tail lighthouse. Here 
are three wharves at present — Gaskill's, O'Brien's and 
Dixon's, and a fourth one in course of erection by Capt. 
Gaskill ; and according to the progressive spirit of the 
people, as many more may be errected in as many years. 
Here is a splendid sohoolhouse. Here a large Free 
Baptist Church. Here are millinery shops, pro- 
vision and clothing stores, groceries and confectionery. 
Here are farms, yielding the products of the soil 
abundantly. Here are fishing establishments, vessels of 
large tonnage, boats and dories all employed. Here 
are Flagg's Cove, Sprague or Pettes' Cove, Whale Cove, 
and the Saw-pit Cove. Here is where the steamers first 
come. Here where the mail-steamer lands her mail-bags 
filled :vith letters and the news of the world. On the 
arrival of the mail- steamer, the sight at the head of 
Gaskill's wharf, on the highway between it and the 
post-<5ffice (some sixty rods), and at the steamer (if 
high water and she is alongside), presents as lively and 
as busy a scene as on and about the steamboat landing 
at Eastport, Calais or St. Stephen. It is no idle 
gathering either, for large freights arrive with each 
arrival of the steamer. 

The amount of trade carried on here, taking the popu- 
lation into consideration, is astonishing. The fishermen 
must be amazing consumers. Here are respectable and 
comfortable conveniences for the entei*taiument of 



Bay of Famly Islands and Islets, 

(1 I; 


'' 'i'M 

I' ' .'(1, 

. SI ( 




strangers. Capt. Jus. A. Pettcs' house, a short walk 
from the steamboat landing, has all the accommodations 
requisite for the comfort of a limited number of guests. 
The table is well supplied with all that the hungry or 
the delicate appetite demands ; the rooms clean, airy, and 
spacious ; the bedrooms just what they ought to be, 
and where "tired nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep," 
loves to hold its vigils. The lady hostess is so well,-, 
known, and so well appreciated by the travelling public 
to the island, that anything further in her praise would 
be quite superfluous. 

On tjie first settlement of this part of the island, as 
may bo suf)poaed, only two or throe individuals pitched 
their tent here. Little did they dream of the future — 
the short future too. Drawing a straight line from the 
head of Fiagg's Gove across to the centre of the sea wall 
at Whale Cove, leaves all the eastern part of North 
Head a peninsula — the strip of low land separating the. 
two coves forming an isthmus : the western part form- 
ing our main land — ahall say (geographically) 
continent. On this peninauli have at its extremity 
east, the Swallow Tail, and on the Swallow Tail a light- 
house, from base to deck, 45 feet ; and the point on 
which it stands, being 103 feet above high water, makes 
the elevation of the light 148 feet total elevation. There 
is a keeper's house, in addition to the lighthouse, and 
other smaller buildings for stores, tools, oil, &c., ail 
painted whit 3. The keeper, Mr. John W. Kent, being 
quite neat and tasty of himself, spares no mins to keep 
his buildings in trim also. The light reflectors cast a 
brilliant gleam over the waters of the bay and help to 
chase away the gloom of darkness, and it may be of fear 
from many a storm-tossed mariner. The view from the 
Swallow Tail, or west of the bridge, near the Saw-pit, on 
a clear day, can hardly be excelled. Part of the coast 
of Maine, of the north shore in Charlotte County, 
Campobello, the Wolves Islands, Pennfield, Chamcook 
Mountain and the numerous hill tops extending from 
St. George to St. AndrcAvs are all visible to the naked 
eye. It is a standpoint from which the observer can see, 
too, the bli;e line of the Nova Scotia shore lying along 
the horizon as if pencilled there by a marine artist. Now 
a large square -Yigger looms up, and another, and another ; 

In Charlotte Counti/, New Brun»wick, 






lat a 



ler ; 

then flmaller craft in scores. The smoke, too, of a 
steamer lazily floating along over the still waters gives 
riso to thought. Has she crossed the Atlantic, or is she 
from Halifax or Yarmouth or the States ? Or is she 
hound out to traverse the treacherous ocean, bearing a 
precious freight of human kouIs ? If so, may the 
voyage bo propitious and free h*om harm over the wide 
waste of waters. No visitor to Grand Manan should 
leave it, if convenient at all, without a walk to the top of 
the highest land at Pettes' Cove, esnecially if the day be 
fine and free from fog. The scenery of land and sea 
from it will well repay the time. 

By reference to the map of the island we find that 
the little isthmus, nlready mentioned, was glebe land 
many years since, when subsequently it became the 
property of Ebenezer Gasldll. The course by the com- 
pass from Flagg's Cove to Whale Cove being north ten 
degrees east. 

Josiah Flaf ,( was the original proprietor of 200 acres 
of the North Head peninsula, known as Lot No. 16, and 
adjoining the glebe lot. John Sprague was the early 
owner of Lot No. 15, adjoining the Flagg lot, and con- 
taining 225 acres — the line between the lots extending to 
nearly the centre of Fish Head, and running the- same 
course as the glebe line, north ten degi'ees east. A 
triangular piece of land formed by the line extending 
from Nett Point, north twenty-eight degrees west, 
twenty-eight chains, until it strikes the line at the 
highway, of the original Flagg and Sprague lots, became 
the property of Lieut. John Cameron on which reside 
his two daughters, his grandsons, Capt. Pettes, Peter 
Dixon, and his grand-daughter, Mrs. E. A. Dixon, 
and other descendants, and numerous other families. A 
long, narrow strip of land runs longitudinally on the 
south of tho latter line and highway, extending along 
the shore of Flagg's Cove to Drake's Dock and further. 
Nathanial Daggett succeeded Josiah Flagg in ownership 
of Lot No. 16 ; and James Small succeeded his grand- 
father, John Sprague, in Lot No. 15. 

From the above statements, the whole area of our little 
North Head peninsula — say from the present residence 
of Deacon Rodney Flagg to the Swallow Tail lighthouse 
— comprises about 450 acres. It would have been 




Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

deemed fabulous, at the earliest period o. the settlement 
of this romantic part of the island, to have sketched by 
pen or pencil its present appearance as it is in 1876. 
What a half-century, more or less, eflfects in a wild forest 
land, possessing facilities for settlement and trade, 
can find as good proof at North Head as in almost any 
other portion of New Brunswick — and that, too, 
independent of railroads or telegraph wires. 

Two or three dwelling houses, and small and incon- 
venient withal, were the only hospitable roofs, say fifty 
or sixty years ago, to afford a night's lodging or a 
homely meal to any poor wayfarer who might perad- 
tenture com ^ along ; or to the hapless sailor cast, like 
a waif from the sea, upon the shore. But, how is it 
now ? Let the eye look over those 450 ^cres, and what 
do we see? Verdant fields and cultivated acres, 
handsome residences, garden plots, neat fences, vessels 
riding gallantly at anchor — some going to other ports 
lad^n with tlie islands exports, others coming in, 
bringing in like richly laden argosies the product! of 
other climes ; fish-houses, stored with the finest of fish, 
ready waiting for the market; an ever increasing 
population of industrious men, economical housewives 
and intelligent children — and of the lest named, about 
118 on the school regif?ter list of daily attendance ; 
Sabbath-day worship regularly by a stated ministry of 
the Episcopalian, Rev. Mr. Covert ; and the Free Will 
Baptist, Rev. Mr. Kenney, — both of those gentlemen, 
highly esteemed for their "works' sako" and other good 

We will leave North Head for the present, resuming 
a few additional remarks hereafter, and, in the mean- 
time, introduce the reader to the extremity *of Northern 

Here is the noted Eel Brook, which has gained a 
name on ttccount of its copper ore — 'that valuable 
mineral having been discovered there in beautiful 
specimens. Bui Eel Brook, has obtained a notoriety of 
a far different kind than coppe ' — no less than the scene 
of some of the most dreadful shipwrecks that have 
occurred in the Bay of Fundj. Gince the occurrence of 
those dread disasters, a fog- whistle has been erected 
near the scene, at Long's Eddy ; and as no shipwrecks 

id by 
t any 

y fifty 
I or a 
t, like 
w is it 
i what 

r ports 
ng in, 
icti of 
»e wives 

dance ; 

stry of 

r good 


ined a 
liety of 
mce of 


In Charlotte County, Netv Brunswick, 51 

have occurred since, the warning voice of this fog- 
trumpet may have prevented some fog-enveloped vessel 
from finding her voyafi;e ended near Eel Brook, 

The follo\^ing account of two wrecks at this place will 
convey to the reader an idea of the dangerous nature of 
the Northern Head for vessels in fog or storm, and the 
great necessity for using every precaution towards 
giving the fatal spot as wide a berth as possible. 


The narrative of this dreadful shipwreck and loss of 
life is strictly true, tt-^ writer having obtained the facts 
from one of the survivors, Mr. James Lawson, a native 
of Bronholm, Denmark, and who has been for many 
years and still is a resident at North Head, Grand 

The Lord Ashhurton was a ship of over 1000 tons 
burthen, c(%nmanded by Capt. Owen Creary, a native of 
Pictou, Nova Scotia. His chief mate was a native of 
Brighton, England ; the ship's carpenter hailed from 
Portland, Me.; his name is thought to be Sweeney, past 
middle age, had a wife and two children, residing in 
Portland. The ship's crew, ofiBcers and men numbered 
29 all told. The Lord Ashhurton sailed from Toulon, 
France, in ballast, on the 17th of November, a. d. 1856, 
bound for St. John, N. B. Nothing unusual occurred 
during the voyage across the Atlantic. The ship made 
Cape Sable in the afternoon of Christmas-day, December 
25th, and in due time entered the B^y of Fundy, and 
sighted Grand Manan ; but encountering head winds, 
fierce and continuous, was forced to put to sea. Three 
times successively this doomed sh'T) sighted the island, 
and by adverse, furious galen compelled t''. turn her lofty 
prow away from her destined port — that port which she 
rafl never to enter ! Battling with the storms of winter 
in the Bay of Fundy, the persevering mariners, with 
courage characteristic of the sailor accustomed to the 
perils of the sea, which proves ho vv use doth breed a 
habit in a man, cont.'nued to urge on the Lord Ashhur- 
ton despite the raging waves, fempostuous wiids, and 
gathering ice on deck and rigging, towards their anxi- 
ously desired port, St. John harbour. 

Hope grew strong in the buasts of Captain Creary 


Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets, 

f '=: 

and his men as they sighted Partridge Island light, at 
the entrance of the long-sought harbour, on the Satur- 
day night of the 17th of January, a» d. 1857 — just two 
months 8?nce the ship sailed from sunny 'France, with 
full flowing top sails, for New Brunswick^ A good ship, 
manned and officered by able seamen — all hopeful of 
spending the opening of a New Year in the bustling, 
busy business City of St. John. Oh, could they but have 
seen on ihat 17th of November 1856, as they sank the 
sight of merry Toulon in the distance, a picture of the 
dread wreck of their good ship, so soon to be ; could 
they but have read in brief the harrowing story of 
death's intended work 'among that gallant crew on the 
shore of a far-oif islaud, and so nigh their intended port, 
what anguish untold would have been theirs ! But let 
us not anticipate. The s^.mpie story of this tragic record 
of the bay is more than enough for the sensitive mmd to 
dwell upon — the tender heart to feel. On ^e night of 
the 17th of Janhary 1857, the wind blew a gala fror> 
the north-east, attended with a heavy snow and a tre- 
mendous sea — making up in all what is generally termed 
and so well known, "a violent north-east snowstorm." 
That is sufficient ; it tells its own story, it conveys its 
own interpretation, and can easily be defined by 
dwellers on the land ; but, alas ! how much more so 
by those who go down to the sea in ships, who do 
business on the great waterr^ — by those on board a vessel 
in the Bay of Fundy, or anywhere on the North 
American Coast, and at night ! The night under 
consideration found the Luid Ashburton in sight of 
Partridge Island ; but to get within the offing or ap- 
proach nearer, was impossible. Under dire necessity, 
the ship was hove to, hoping that daylight, the light of the 
coming Sabbath morn, would bring with it a cessation of 
the raging storm. Delusive hopo ! Daylight came, but no 
abatement. That Sabbatli morning, the 18th of Janu- 
ary, A. D. 1857, revealed a raging sea and a terrible 
snowstorm ! Sunday passed away, the ship lying to ; 
and with its passing. Oh, how many of those 29 sailors 
thought of home — of the days of their childhood, of the 
prayers they lisped at their mother's knee, of the ringing 
and chiming of Sabbath bclis, of parental love a;id 
instruction, of the companionship of bi other, sister, 

In Charlotte County, New Brunsvick. 


L-e so 
it of 
If the 
it no 





relatives and friends ! Are they all, or any, remembered 
now ? And as the darkness of night again begins to 
fling its dark funereal pall over the bay, how many of 
them wipe the rolling tear with rope-hardenei hand from 
the weather-beaten cheek, with presentiment of boding 
death ! God knoweth. Their manly breasts heaving 
with intense agony of spirit, as another long, dark, 
stormy night gathered in and over them. Is that 
gallant-looking ship, as she rises and falls on ana among 
the furious billows of the angry bay, to outride the storm, 
and anchor in safety in the noble harbour of St. John ; 
or has fate sealed her doom by an irrevocable Sat ? . We 
shall see. 

The Lord Aahhiirton, from the time she sighted 
Partridge Island light, was driven as wind and tide 
drove her — at the mercy of wind and wave. They had 
no mercy ! "Before the boreal blasts the vessel flies." 
And now, refrain as we would, our pen comes to the 
recital of thf heart-rendering, sickening details. It was 
about an hour after midnight, on that eventful Sabbath 
night, the 18th of January, that the Lord Ashburton 
rushed on impetuously towards the frowning cliff of 
rocks, near Eel Brook, at Ihr nortborn end of Grand 
Manan, thf^ summit of the clifl' high above the lofty top- 
gallant masts, and b iig down as if v;ith grim ■ isage 
upon the awful sight below ! The ship, spec i j^ on to 
^.ertain destruction, the seeihiri^ waters al^ arouud her, 
struck the rocks abreast ber f '-e-chaino 1 Captain 
Creary, taking in the inevitable, at once cried ov^ ■ *'My 
God, my God, .we are all gone!" TL'- chiet olK«ers 
gave orders to get out the boats — futile or icrs, no human 
being could obey them ; for 

'•Striking the rocks, the storm confirmed its power 
And soon the whitened waves flung bodies on thr ..ore." 

Now came in terrible earnestness a h ie for life. 
Hitherto, strong active men, now staggered and reeled 
like helpless children. The ship listed off shore, the 
foremast and mainmast v/ent by the board — the mizen- 
mast soon followed — the crew and offlcers gathered aft 
on the starboard quarter; and it was at this awful 
juncture that Death began his dread work in earnest. 
Yes, yes; it was then that — 

"The wild confusion in this fearful storm, 
And groans of men, was death in dreadful form," 


Bay of Fundy Islands and Islets. 

— ^the captain and his officers and many of the crew 
being swept off by the dark, mounting, rolling waves into 
the merciless sea ! Ten of the crew, including ship's 
steward, flung themselves into the mad waves next tho 
shore, and partly under the lee of the ship's quarter. 
Some got on fragments of the bro'i?en ship ; others, 
attemi ting to gain tho beach by swimmii^^ as best they 
could, although every heaving sea broke over them with 
overwhelming fiorce. One of the ten who thus fought 
for life against death in the raging waves was James 
Lawson, and desperate were his struggles and efforts for 

Amidst the bowlings of the tempest, the roaring of the 
waves, and the wild shrieks and shouts of drowning and 
mangled shipmates, he struggled on ; sometimes nearing 
the shore and again carried back by the undertow. At 
length, wheii almost overpowered, his strength just gone, 
his feet touched land ! It was then about two hours 
flood tide, and gaining a footing, lie had just got out of 
tide's way, when he fell exhaasted on the beach ! Unable 
to stand, he got upon his liands and knees, and endeav- 
oured to get further up the beach ; but being too much 
exhausted for that, and feeling the rising tide beginning 
to wash up to him, he called aloud for help ; and strange 
to say, in this his almost hopeless extremity, one of his 
shipmates, who had reached the shore in stronger con- 
dition than he, heard his cries, and coming to him, 
helped him to stand, and assisted hingi to the base of the 
cliff, where he remained till daylight, the waves at high 
water washing up to his waist. While strugghng in the 
sea to reach the shore, he lost both boots, and the sharp 
rocks on shore soon tore the stockings from his feet; and 
thus he stood for hours barefooted among the icy rocks. 
A few short hours more in that situation, and he must 
die. Another strong effort, strong in his weakness, must 
again be made for life. Clambering up the precipitous 
breast of rugged rocks before him is now the only 
alternative. With the effort he succeeded, and on 
reaching the summit p dreary prospect presented itself. 
No dwelling in sight, no road to guide to a hospitable 
roof ; with frozen feet and now all alone, a dreary wild 
of rocks and snow and stunted trees before and all 
around him, it only remained for him to learn "what 

f the 







In Charlotte County, New Brunstvick. 56 

prodigies can power divine make man perform ;" and so 
in his exhausted and perilous condition he proceeded on, 
as best he could, knowing not whither, until he saw a 
building in the distance. Making for it, it proved to 
be an old barn at Long's Eddy, containing hay. 
(There is now a fog-whistle erected near the spot where 
the barn then stood.) This poor shelter he reached and 
entered — anticipating there to die ! But Grod had 
decreed otherwise. Close on his barefooted tracks in 
the snow, followed a fellow-creature to save him — the 
same person now in charge of the fog-whistle — who on 
entering the barn beheld poor Lawson, and soon he was 
conducted from the cold barn to a warm little cottage, 
occupied by a kind-hearted old couj)le, Mr. Bennett and 
his wife, where he was kept until next day, then 
removed to the residence of Mr. William Kendrick, of 
Whale Cove, receiving every possible care and attention 
under the circumstances. 

r- Early in February following, Lawson, with six others 
bis rescued shipmates, were taken to the Marine Hos- 
pital at St. John. There he remained for five years 
and three months, having had both feet partly amputated 
by Dr. Boyd. On leaving his hospital home, he re- 
mained in the City of St. John about three years ; but 
feeling a very strong desire to re-visit the Island of 
Grand Manan, where he had suffered so much and 
where he had experienced so much of God's goodness, 
he yielded to the strong desire and came to the island. 
If he had ever been skeptical in the belief of an over- 
ruling Providence, the subsequent histoid of his life was 
and is more than sufficient to establish his faith in the 
verity of those words : 

P* "God mores in a tnyaterioui way, His wonders to perform." 

Thus was James Lawson saved on that awful night, 
or rf ther morning, of the lUth of January 1857, while 
all the officers of the ship and a large majority of his 
shipmates were hurled into eternity — into the swallow- 
ing gulf of waves of dark forgetfulness and deep 
oblivion ! — the thick falling flakes of tempest driven 
snow being the only flowers thu-t strewed their watery 
graves, for the time,<imid the awful roar of the hurricane ! 
Having landed on the friendly shore where eight years 
previously God had so mercifully saved him, crippled in 



fi ' 

I' ? 


Bay of Fundy Inlands and Islets, 

botb feet, his hands unskilled in any mechanic art, and 
his tongue, althouglf fluent enough in his native langu- 
age, the Danik^h, untrained in English, his disadvantages 
seemed very embarrassing, particularly on a foreign 
shore. The Danes are characteristically a moral, 
industrious, frugal and persevering people, and James 
Lawson proved no exception ; for he soon manifested 
those national traits on his adopted island-home, 
securing for himself the sympathy and good-will of 
the inhabitants. 


Not being able to stand long at a time on his feet, he 
wisely elected to learn the shoe-making business, as 
being the most suitable under the circumstances ; and 
notwithstanding the fact that he cut and stitched and 
pegged away, week after week, losing time a»d money 
withal, he persevered with a pertinacity of purpose not 
to be overcome, until he mastered the opposing forces, 
arriving at the accomplishment of his acme. 

His perseverance thus rewarded^ and the knowledge of 
his new profession giving increased satisfaction to his 
increasing customers, he was, in a short time, the re- 
cognised boot and shoe-maker of Grand Manan. As 

such he is this day. 



James Lawson, having succeeded so well in acquiring 
by dint of self-instruction a knowledge of the art and 
mystery of shoe-making, felt encouraged to go further 
and take unto himself a wife. Having married a good 
help-meet by Avhom he had two children, a son and 
daughter, he soon built up for himself a local habitation 
and a name. 

In the dispensation of Providence, after a few years of 
married life, the mother exchanged this mortal life for 
one of immortality ; and her bereaved husband, after a 
reasonable lapse of time, found it necessary to marry 
Again — he and family residing about two miles from the 
scene of his providential escape from death. Having 
united himself with the Free Will Baptist Church at 
North Head, he sets an example of Christian consistency 
which it would be well if many older professing Chris- 

e of 



5 of 

ber a 






In Charlotte Cowityj New Brunswick. 


tians would more closely imitate. We must now leave 
this part of our narrative, recommendinf? at our parting 
the history of James Lawson, as one worthy of thought 
and copying in part. Tliat history proving what a 
stranger in a strange land can perform, under the most 
trying and adverse circumstances, Avhen strengthened 
by sobriety, and an indomitable resolve to succeed. Go, 
doubting youth, and arm thyself with fortitude ; put 
thine own shoulder to the wheel, and Heaven will help 
thee to conquer every difficulty. 


Of the ten seamen who reached the beach, neven 
perished by the intensity of the cold, superinduced by 
their previous exertions among the breaking waves. 
The news of the dreadful shipwreck was soon carried 
throughout the island ; and during the forenoon of that 
never-to-be-forgotten 19th of January, many people had 
collected at the scene of the awful disaster, although 
the drifted snow was piled up over road and fields as 
one insuperable barrier. Seven were found in a sitting 
posture, and when approached by those who had come 
to succour and to save, they looked so life-like in their 
death, that it was supposed they had fallen asleep ! And 
so they had ; but it was that sleep which know^s no wak- 
ing ! It has always been considered by the men who 
saw the dreadful effects of that terrible catastrophe on 
that morning, as very extraordinary that not one of the 
ship's number of officers and men was missing! The 
bodies of the captain and his mates, with seventeen of 
the crew, were all there ! What a sight ! Twenty-one 
lifeless bodies stretched before their eyes on that rock- 
bound shore. Humanity was astir that morning among 
the hardy fishermen of Grand Manan. The still small 
voice of unutterable sorrow whispered down deep into 
every heart ; and with trembling hearts, but strong 
arms, those dead strangers were soon lifted from their 
icy, rocky death-beds, to receive from sympathising 
strangers' hands a regretful and decent interment. 


With the exception of the captain's remains, those of 
the other officers and seamen were laid together ! Death 


:r 's 


Bay of Fundy Islands and .Islets, 


is a li^reat leveller. In the graveyard at North Head, a 
long, lettered board reads : "Here lie the remains of 21 
seamen of the ship Lord Ashhurton, drowned 19th Jan. 
1857." That tells the story ! Captain Creary's brother 
came subsequently, had the remains disinterred, and 
taken away to receive burial in his native soil and among 
those of relatives. It was a melancholy consolation — 
but even that was a balm to wounded hearts. Better 
than an unknown spot at the bottom of the ocean. Now 
gentle footsteps can walk by the grassy hillock ; and the 
hand of friendship strew flowers over him, and the tears 
of love and grief mingle together and weep in sorrow 
but in hope. It is noticeable to the residents of North 
Head that when a ship of Her Majesty's Navy or any 
other navy visits us, and the officers come ashore, they 
almost invariably find their way to the graveyard and 
then to the grave where rest the remains of the lost 
crew of the Lord Ashhurton. How true it is that "fel- 
low-feeling makes us kind." • The sailor wearing his 
epaulettes disdains not to mourn over the grave of his 
shipmate from the forecastle. Although those twenty- 
one strangers are buried far from the graves of their 
fathers, yet they are sleeping in British soil — the soil of 
a free land. "After life's fitful fever, they sleep well." 


The loss of this fine vessel, and the terrible loss of 
life with it, although far below that of the ship Lord 
Ashhurton, in tonnage, and in number of men, far ex- 
ceeded that dreadful wreck in its wholesale slaughter ! 
Strange, that two such great disasters should have 
occurred at almost the very same point of rocks — the 
distance of the wreck of the Sarah Shane being but a 
few rods from where the Loi'd Ashhurton met her doom. 
But God's ways are inscrutable to man. It was Wesley, 
the poet and the divine, who, in describing death, wrote : 

"Ah, lovely appearance of death I 
What sight upon earth is so fair ? 

But had he been a spectator at Eel Brook at the time of 
the wreck of the Sarah Sloane, and beheld with shud- 
dering gaze the fragmentary portions of the bodies of 
the unfortunate sailors, he would not have asked the 
question : "What sight upon earth is so fair ?" but 


d, ft 

on — 


•r any 
, they 
d and 
le loBt 
b *'fel- 
ig bis 
of bis 

soil of 

loss of 
far ex- 
rbter ! 
t— tbe 
but a 
/rote : 

[me of 


ies of 



In Charlotte Conntif, New Bninsivick. 


ratber would be have toucbed the lyric string in words 
lilte these : 

Oh I shocking; Rpponrnnce of death I 
What sight upon tarth so appalling ? 

The venerable Wesley must have had before hira, 
imaginary or real, tbe sweet-face of some little cherub- 
child, whose spirit had just passed from its small 
tenement of flesh to its God — leaving the imprint-smile 
m an angel's kiss upon its yet dimpled cheek when he 
penned the lines quoted. He could not have bad 
pictured before him the broken bones and mangled flesh 
of man, cut down as in a moment, in manhood's strength 
by the sweeping scythe of death — death in its most 
appalling form ! 

Of all that hapless crew, but one, a young mulatto, a 
native of Baltimore, U. S., was left to tell the tale of 
woe ! His name was Charles Turner. Turner's en- 
durance of suffering was remarkable. How he lived 
through that fierce storm and the piercing cold, is only 
known to Him whose providence sustained him. The 
3'oung mulatto was conveyed to Capt. Eben Gaskill's 
residence, where be received every attention and com- 
fort that could be administered under the circumstances. 
It was about two o'clock in the afternoon of the 12th 
of March 1872 that the Sarah Sloane, Capt. Sloane, 
master, left St. John Harbour, bound for Cardenas, 
with a load of shooks and hay. The crew consisted of 
eight souls all told. By six o'clock that same evening, 
not one was living but the young mulatto ! 

With but one or two exceptions, tbe bodies were so 
mangled, as rendered the sight the most horrible and 
sickening. The bodies, literally cut and ground into 
pieces by the action of the debns of the wreck, and the 
action of the waves among the sharp rocks common to 
that part of the shore. No better idea can be given of 
the appalling sight than to use the words of a fisherman 
who was present after the disaster, and assisted to gather 
up the detached remains and put them in boxes. "The 
pieces," said he, "of the poor fellows, looked for all the 
world like so many junks of raT pork !" What more 
than that homely-expressed description was necessary to 
convey the effects of the wreck of the Sarah Sloane 1 

No more revolting and distressing casualty of the tea 



Bay of Fundij Islnnih and Islets , 

' 'i' 




can hardly be given. Tlie mangled portions were care- 
fully collected, boxed up, and buried near where the 
remains of the Lord Ashlmrtoii's crew are interred * 
while the body of the captain and supercargo were taken 
in the schooner F. Gould, Capt. Eben Gaskill, to St. 
John. Turner, the mulatto, was also conveyed at the 
same time to the Marine Hospital in that city, and had 
his feet amputated ; and after his convalescence was 
sent to his native city, Baltimore, U. S., where, it f^ 
presumed, he was kindly cared for by friends and relatives. 
Those shipwrecks, attended with such lamentable loss 
of life, not to speak of propei-ty, which must have been 
heavy, awakened the Government to the necessity of 
using wiiat means it could towards preventing the re- 
currence of similar disasters ; and as there was a 
lighthouse at Swallow Tail, it was considered best to 
erect a fog-whistle at or as near as possible the place at 
North Head where those dreadful shipwrecks had been. 
Consequently, Long's Eddy appeared the most suitable 
location, and there it is, bellowing foi*th a grum warning 
by night or by day, or throughout them both, piercing 
through the fog-gloom, to keep clear of the rocks near 
Eel Brook, and the precincts of the old "bishop," who 
sits on his rocky chair, overlooking wrecks and storms 
as grim and hard-featured as ever did the noted Judge 
Jeffries, the cruel. 


The scenery at Eel Brook Cove, and from the base 
and summits of the stupendous cliffs, is grand and 
picturesque in the extreme. Nothing conveys more of 
the sublimity of rock and wave, than the raging surf 
striking in wild fury against those embattled cliffs ! 
Nothing more calculated to impress the mind with awe, 
and the mighty power of the Almighty, who "walketh 
on the wings of the wind, and holdeth the waters in the 
hollow of His hand." 

There is q\iite a farm at Eel Brook, and large ranges 
of pasture where flocks of she^p roam and feast unmo- 
lested by any wild beast. Eel Brook has its source in a 
..nail lake about one mile from the shore, called Eel Lake. 
It is surrounded with a fine growth of hard and soft wood. 
On the brook, and not far from the beach, is a small 

^n Charlotte Countv \^. n 

I. xvhi^U .. r ~ 

saw mill «,i • 1 ~ ""'t'/t. ej 

'■«stle abont tl,e month of p^- T'] ^''^'"'"'' 1°™ to 
the bay through a del „ ^'°"''- I' empties into 
Pl'-'eisin keepiJw th ««'''■?«■ «"<' "'« ""pect of the 

n one n,>ht « ] a,f i,„^.^, " ""'h, an.l catch sometimei, 
they make from the hZk tnU T "^ '-•«« ''"t eeiraa 
Ee) Brook. On aZZ i " " ''"y- H«nco the name 
l-'ocipitoua cliff at I "'""^ "'*' °>0"ntain.l ke ani 

=: t-E" vt?^-~ rrrri 

name Bishop-, Hoad r' '""« ^"'^ honored "rith the 
rough carvings on a rock aUl,! ^'''T ^'""'^ of „"t„re's 
to oft.set the BiHho"rHL*lf SJ'";?^" ^'•'^' ""-J « i 
tie fignre of a wonfan of ll "'"'•" ^'''"3. stands ' 
tft'iied the name of the 01/^^?^""^"' "hich has at 
dame Nature, in seaWnt the On r' u^'"'""''?. «^e" 0"/^ 

to It ; and w!,en so readv t'l '"^^ '""^' he com.,Iete'd 
ft-n Long's Edd^ to s^JhtrTT*" he a splendrd dr ^f 
beauty of rural and m,,; " ^^*'"'' nearly, which Zl 
«n.T other drive for™ "ranrr^"'*^ ^^^^ «wLge 
Western Continent. """' ""'"''«'• of miles on the 

^^^ortsrafnf, j,:7j^ov^ '^'-^ '^ ^-"^ - 

^lees belli (^ well adapted fn.i-' ^ • ''^^ number of the 







B(M/ of Fundy hlands and laleU, 

Andrews, carried on quite u trade in the sawin;? of 
luml)(3r and in Bhip-tiniber. Miiny Iojjjh cut at thiit time 
remained in the little lake (Eel Jjako) until a year or 
two ago, when they were taken from their hods of watery 
repose and manufactured into pickets in the tiny luill on 
the brook. 


at the head of Whale Cove merits attention and 
particular mention, chiefly on account of the variety of 
beautiful pebbles to be found there. Tlfo lover of 
mineral and sea-shore BpecimeuH, can be richly rewarded 
by wending hi a §teps to the pebbly -covered beach at 
Whale Cove, and collecting as many as he choones to 
take away with him. Here are porphyry, agate, jasper 
and many other varieties. That noted head, called Fish 
Head, on the eastern hide forms a stupendous break- 
water from the easterly storm, while the long line of 
frowning cliifs, extending, as one of nature's greatest 
ramparts, along the western sliore to Eel Brook, shelters 
our spacious Whale Cove from the fury of a north-weat 
gale, leaving the placid cove to wrap the drapery of its 
couch around it, and sleep on in pleasant dreams. 

In the year 1873, a large ship, the Humher, of some 
IGOO tons, ended her voyage life at this sea-wall, and 
was a huge example of the cremation Hvstem of dealing 
with the remains of the dead, only that no kind hand 
gathered up the ashes to presei-ve them as precious 
relics of the dear departtd ! The waters of Whale Cove 
were the urn to receive them. 

Leaving Eel Brook, and seeking other brooks, we 
find a pretty murmuring stream, east of the Free Will 
Baptist Meeting-house, coursing its never weary journey 
to the waters of the bay. Further on, southerly, another 
narrow but. dashing brook races for the bay, emptying 
itself into its swelling tides, a little south of Drake's 
Dock. At the eastern line of the old Winchester farm, 
another pretty stream runs for salt water ; and, like a 
twin sister, another near it on which is a taw-mill. 
Near the Isaac Meigg's farm, we cross another gurgling^ 
stream which turns a mill, passing on, like all the 
rest, as if eager to commingle with salt water. There 
is a lovely brook at Grand Harboar, running down past 

luriior WT)ostep ?' ^ 

^xteMisLnient. ' '''' °' '•'"'"' ""d tl.e lobster foctorr 

•lo^t"'? with the raiitv l/>„ '^^■I "" '" '">''« their 
«vprtl,ero»d „„ a, S 'f 1", ,"'« 'T"''" »h„ .Irire 
reHrtoano,vhi.A, S ,Y''''' "'"' ■»'"' l«"ld M^ 
,">^' '-"gl.. for st oe," ,"; f ""' » «"™' "t 'l'« «at 
^oast can h„,di,. R,J)/2t '™ !'' """'^^ '"M nor 
H. 1, and noariri, Hoa Co,; ^hl""^- ^""''"'« ^nrk 

«'id who cultivates a slTf P''^'™"'* er at the cove 
>™'!-fi'lfd .tore witi,ah '"'" "'"' ''<-'»?« « "eat and 

-"■^JG brook af *«»ft i r« 
|'"ven, „,„do i,y rir kws'™';"" •'"'" """ ^"^^ 'i't'« 
'y « bndfte, which .eems to 1«^ ?''"''' """^ '^ ^P""""'' 
*"ps, as if waitiiiff a vlt^ % ■ " ' '"■«'' t'le liijfh hill 

Board of Worl "foVh t t"!:;,/ t/'T-?'''^"'-' "^ ' "« 

Ihe nnsler who wishes to I t ."" "" f.'"«'ance8. 
''"■0 Pon..d.s each, n w „, . r'', "■""* ^«gl>ing over 

catch them. H^;^l*™ h'a'""^' """''^ '■^>'' ™te » to 
<'«h. just oatside low wit, " T"'! "' ™" ^"'er fresh 
"'■« content with JIllTrout. ''' ''"' ^"'"^ ^ananTtes 

v^i tile lancl Iii'vic ,. i • i . 
«- t.l,ore mtt':; ;t ™'lhl'; If'-^ ^■•- «'^- to 
<ai^on. ho,.,y ^t^;J^^> re, ,,., ^Trange-legg.d 
^n>all Creech.'" ""'' '•^'^•■- ''""^-J- snowey, ba™ grev 

e,,cfo._Yello "m ^d & ';'""'' P"P'e marti,,. 
' f^ ^"'^^^"-Spotte Vtry^^t^/,'^"'"'!^^ W 
.4mmc„„ irond.thn,,7,T^^,'-^.' '''"e-winged fay 

"^ ^^^^ Brunswick— all 





II' ■■ 


64 Bay of Fiindy Islands and Islets^ 

migratory — .^uch as Mack cap, white-throated, white- 
breasted, yellow- win j]jed wren, coal tit, chatterers, wax- 
wings, sparrow, pinefiiich, crossbill, broan tree creeper, 
&c., &c. 

Wood-peckers — The great black, three-toed, spotted 
and '^mali. 

.77<<? American Pigeon is also migratory. On the 8th 
of March 1875, a turl'ey buzzard was shot at Whale 
Cove. As this bird is common to South Carolina, its 
appearance so far north as Grand Manan was a rare 
occurrence, which may never occur again. 
^ Cranes — The grey crone, heron. 

Plovers — The grey, golden, dotterel, sand plover, and 
little plover. 

Sandpipers — The ash-colorcd, purple, pectoral, curlew, 
little sandpiper. 


Great curlew, whimball curlew ; snipe, crake, bittern ; 
thick-billed goose, barnacle goose ; shell duck, mallard 
duck, teal, wigeou, eidei'dack, sooter, surf ecoter, harlequin- 
■duck; divers, ring-necked loon, black-throated loon; razor*' 
billed awk, little awk or ice-bird, cormorant ; terns :^ 
oommon, Caspian, arctic, black-breasted, gull tern ;" 
gulls : great black-backed, swallow -footed, silvery,^,, 
white- winged, green-billed ; pirate bird, long- tailed do.' 
(arctic), shearwater ; Wilson's petrel, storm petrel, sea 
pigpon, &c., &c. 

The above list of land and lea-birds has been kindly 
handed to the author by our Grand Manan ornithologist, 
. Capt. John T. C. Moses, a native of England, but long 
a resident of Charlotte County, New Brunswick, retain- 
ing ever an enthusiastic love of fatherland and the old 
flag. He makes birds his specialty and his pastime. 

The wild animals of the woods on the island are very 
few — deer, rabbit, fox. With the exception of sly 
Reynard's lo^e for the poultry yard, what tew wild animals 
are on the island are perfectly harmless, and a child is 
safe in sleeping on any ^art of it — free from attack of 
anything larger than a black-fly or musquito. 

It has been observed by many sportsmen as some- 
thing singular that no partridges are to be seen here. 
As there are plenty of birch, and considerable wilderness 

'nhaWtod, present, , S'ran." f V"/'"^' ''«"*^ ««- 
•"•d b.rd, but we havelhem not '^'^''"S"""* of beast 

,„ ,, , OW ISLETS, 

ff the southern side of tl,„ • > , 

picturesque and beau Lmv "'""''' "'•« "ot only 

?» well, forming so ma "^ ""l'"'™?'''' '» ". but useful 

Ue fury of the sea in a storm T"^ ^"^^ ""^ch of 
PJigg's Cove and Centrey' L> '^ °"^ ^''""d P™tects 
0»ck Islands an,l >Sn 'It!!- ^f*'' Hio], and Low 
2U\;podward-s CoveT wMeNCriT''?''^"^'''' ?«"" * 
^lets form a k^.^er from L ... •^?'' ""'' ''« '""e-- 
Harbour. And the Thrc^ tIT I '" '''™"'- "^ Grand 
^f^, opposite Seal Coyl'af,:"""' ^^^^ o^ Inner 
•■■otection there ; so that i^w^ u™"' "P '""* "bieJd of 
her wise pi-ovirf,^„,, fo,.''^,'' "^""''' fPPe", as Nature, i„ 

M>« weal of Grand Mtnfr''''''r''^' ''"''"" <^y " 
accordingrly. n ,^ welf be ^'"'^ f"«"«d herself 
of Grand Man™, tiingl^^'ft ""f "?<* ,«"" «'« P-^sh 

augmentation of pop",^ 'on t^^Tf' ""'' ^"* 'bo 

»'s r.t i£ s. i 3 p-r.£ 

™ iioined, exhibits tho rettfi? V' """g'^'' "'"I be" 

boids on a general poiwr "S P.™'«°" 'be paris'! 

tbo real estate in possesion Tb *''""'," '?°<"' '^ea of 

i ir r^t,!*" '•^""■^ J tlms"' ^''' """''«'• »f freehold 

H-s>. rs'^sl'A?!;^ ^3%^?. f . 0, F. 37, G's 55 


Bay of Fiindy Ishnds mid Islets. 



Z's 4. Total number of voters in 1876, 480. It is 
easy to see that a parish polliniry 480 votes is an im- 
portant portion of Charlotte County, especially to the 
candidate aspirin*^' to a seat in the Local Legislature ; 
and how much more important to the aspirant for a 
seat in the House of Commons ! 

It is ])ut simple justice to the Charlotte County 
Islands that they should bo re])resented in the Local 
Legislature by one of the islanders ; .m/1 it cannot be 
expected that the people of those islands Avill be satisfied 
unless they are so represeiited. The total ])opulation of 
^tlic Parisli of Grand Manan at present, , taking the last 
census as guide to it, may be safely estimated at two 
thousand four hundred souls, and, if slowly, surely: 

K«ferrJng to the iprotection afforded Grrand Manan by 
its outiying islets from the fury of the sea, satisfactory 
proof was experienced on the 4th of October, a. d. 1869, 
when the great tidal-wave rolled on and along the North 
American coast, with the besom of destrnction. 'Tis 
true Grand Manan felt at its different points some of 
the effects of that awful wave, but nothing in conijiarison 
to other parts. Even the steamboat wharf at the town 
of St. Andrews, N. B., was swept by that tidal wave, 
carrying away a part of the block on which the tower 
iijj^d lighthouse keojier's dwelling stood ! The whole 
seaboard of the Atlantic Coast for hundreds of miles was 
more o." less denuded of wharves, buildings, vessels and 
boats. The town of Eastport presented a melancholy 
sigiit ; and some of its most enterprising business men 
were left slmost destitute in one short hour ; and yet, 
Grand Manan passed through the ocean ordeal com- 
paratively unscatlied ! Its islets helped to save it. Even 
the Swallovv Tail light — the base being 103 feet above 
high water mark — suffered much injury, but it had no 
outer island to protect it. 

From t)ie report of W. H. Venning, Inspector of 
Fisheries, for 1670, to the Department at Ottawa, the 
following data appears respecting the Fisheries at Graml 
IManan — namely, that in that year there were employed 
375 men, and the total value of the fish caught 
amounted to $102,351. There were some 50,000 boxes 
of smoked herring and about 30,000 barrels of pickled 


In Charlotte CoimUf, New Brnnsivick. 



3 of 

d no 

lor of 
i.. tlie 


herring. Since ih.'it period larfjje acquisitions have been 
made to the fishin<.{ business. The ishmd had no 
bankers tlien — it has now ; the fishermen did not trawl 
then — ^they do now. 

* While spealdng of trawlinc; for fish, it is not necessary 
to go l)ack to the treaty of 1818 to find, in its interpre- 
tation, cogent reasons to urge the necessity of more 
stringent regulations than at i^reseut exist for the pro- 
tection of our inshore fisheries. 

The amount of tonnage of the island coasters and 
freight vessels will average over 500 tons, while the 
tonnage of ressels engaged in fishing in th'.^ bay and on 
the banks, will far exceed that number. Of large two- 
sail fishing boats and boats of smaller size, and Bkifis, 
and dories, they can he counted by hundreds. Thus 
progresses the productive developments of that in- 
exhaustible storehouse of unbounded wealth, the sea. 

At North Head village there is a large building of its 
kind erected for smoking fish, which is doing an 
extensive business in that branch ; also another at 
Dixon's w^harf, and one on the western side of Flagg's 
Cove. C^ntreville, too, contains smokehouses, and 
cures large numbers. But at Woodward's Cove and at 
White Head — White Head particularly — are found the 
principal places for smoking herring for exportation. 
The Duck Islands, Long Island, and the two inner is- 
lands at Seal Cove also contribute their quota of boxes of 
smoked herring. Indeed, the smoked herring of Grand 
Manan have become as well known in provincial and 
foreign markets, as the famous red herrings of Nova 
Scotia, known as "digby chickens." 

The reader must by this time, having carefully per- 
used our island history from its earliest settlement to 
the present period, possess a sufficient knowledge of its 
attractions, advantages, wealth and importance, to give 
to it its proper estimation as a portion of the Dominion of 
Canada. Although the whole Atlantic coast from Cape 
May to Cape Tormentine is dotted with summer resorts 
for tourists and visitors who seek the invigorating sea 
breeze, and love to lave in the swelling tide, yet Grand 
Manan, as it becomes better known, becomes better 
appreciated, and those lovers of salt water spray and the 
healthful breezes from the sea, find their way here, and 

1 1 


■1 ' 





Bay of Fnndy Islands and IsUts, 

here recuperate theirimpaired health, recruit their fla^.^ing 
Kpirit?*, returning to their respective loi'jvh'tieB with buoy- 
ancy of spirit and ajrility of limb, such as was 
experienced by the cripples froni tije Pool of Bethesda ! 

With the increase of summer visitors, hotel aceom- 
luodation must keep pace. A good hotel will ba required 
at Woodward's Cove or Grand Harbour, and another at 
Seal Cove, or in the vicinity of Deep Cove, near the 
residence of W. B. McLaughlin, Esq.; and should Mr. 
McLaughlin convert his fine private residence into an 
hotel — with his well-known desire to please — the enter- 
prise would be a success. To dine on a rich leg of mutton, 
and then visit the Old Maid of Soubhern Head, and 
return before tea — hnw pleasant ! The Old Bishop at 
North Head would never write its pastoral. 



: 4 

This island T)resonts a fair and an extensive field for 
ft more thorough investigation of its mineral resources 
than it has as yet received. Its geological researches 
have not been adequate to its deposits. Lumps of cop- 
per ore, one weighing several pounds, in its native 
purity, have bo^n picked up at different places from time 
to time, in the vicinity of Eel Brook, Fish Head and 
around the shores of Whale Cove ; and yet, strange to 
say, those tangible proofs of this valuable ore existing 
here remained disregarded, until, in 1862, Moses 
Bagley made a new discovery of copper at the western or 
back part of the island, near a small cove called Sloop 

Parties from England, attracted by the report of this 
discovery, visited the place and began mining operations 
in 1870. The ore is known as grey copper and contains 
90 per cent, of pure copper. This mining party pene- 
trated 210 feet into a cliff, near the beach, finding as 
they progressed the prospects of the ore in quality and 
quantity increasing. Why the party discontinued and 
returned to England cannot be well accounted fo?-. The 
statement has been made, and it remains uncontradicted, 
that the soil of the island covers a .strata of copper. 

Baryta, combining the sulphate and carbonate acids, 
is found to abeund plentifully near Pettes' Cove and in 
the Fish Head vicinity. It is a very valuable mineral, 




In Charlotte County^ New Brunswick. 


and only requires a little capital and more enterprise to 
make it yield a larj^e return for all outlays. The time 
may not be far distant when the hammer of the geologist 
may strike the blow that will sot the miner's pickaxe at 
work in true earnest ; and then the cheery song of the 
fisherman, as ho nears the rocky shore with his boat 
load of fish, will blend merrily with the ring of steel 
striking the shining metal from its bed of ages ! Thufl 
will land and sea contribute in making Grand Manan 
shine brighter and brighter as one of the gems of the 


[g as 

lid in 

The number of horses at present on the island may 
be counted up to 70, and horned cattle, oxen, cows and 
young stock upwards of 150, while sheep are numbered 
by hundreds. It is becoming quite common now for 
our youths and maidens, instead of visiting their friends 
or amusing themselves in sail or row boats, to step into 
a covered carriage or open wagon — of the newest style 
from Dewolfe's factory in St. Stephen or from Nova 
Scotia — and "take a drive." The ** saddle" is too old- 
fashioned, and the '* sulky" is not gufficiently pleasing. 
That very welcome veliicle, too, the meat cart, makes its 
appearance up and down the island ; and no person 
relishes a nice beefstake or mutton-chop with greater 
zest than a sturdy, hungry fisherman. 

In concluding the present history of Grand Manan, 
the auiihor candidly confesses that he has not done full 
justice to the subject. With a willing hand, and an 
earnest desire to do justice, he is notwithstanding con- 
scious of having left much undone of what ought to have 
been done, and, it may be, of having done what ought 
not to have been done. The small price of the work 
would not justify elaborate details. 

A glance at the past and the present relative to Grand 
Manan, will convince the most sceptical that this fine 
island has kept steady march on the road leading on- 
wards and upwards, towards independence ; and if not 
oppressed and overburdened and crushed by and beneath 
the weight of taxes from outside herself, she will prove 
the nursery of a brave and able population of men, to 


; fe 




Bay of Fandji IslawU niid FsJcts, 

jiid the (iovernment that wisely governs her with strong 
arms and fearless hearts. 

Wliat the past half-century has witnessed in the iin- 
])rovement of this island, the next half-century, under 
the protectinsf care and hlesaing of Him who ordereth 
and disposeth according to His will, will see yet greater 
improvements — will see Grand Manan grand in the 
prosecution of her fisheries; grand in her agricultural 
industry ; grand in the development of hei mineral 
resources ; grand in the temperate hahits of her hardy 
sons ; grand in her churches ; grand in her schools ; 
grand in all that ennohles humanity ; and as a bright 
diadem in the coronet of her grandeur, — grand, ever 
grand in the expansion of her native intellectuality. 

In Charlotte County^ New JirnvHwirh. 




^HIS island, lyinf? as it does in tlie mouth of 
the Bay of Fundy, and beinf? under the 
Marine Depai-tment of the Dominion of 
<j v^^JB?» Canada, and having a little history of its 
own, it may not prove uninteresting to 
f!,i\e it some attention in the present history of the 
islands of Charlotte County, ;, 

Its distance is about 13 miles from Gannet Rock ; 
and as Gannet Rock is 6^ miles from the south-west 
head of Grand Manan, the distance of Seal Island from 
Grand Manan is ascertained. It is a little over one 
mile in circumference, and at its highest part has an 
altitude of 28^ feet. Mr, John Connolly and his sons 
— his successors — residents at present of St. Andrews, 
resided on that lone and dreary island some 87 years. 
The experience of this Connolly family of the fogs and 
the storms and the isolation of living on a lone, dosolate 
rock, amid the fury of the elements, for 37 long years, 
must have been bitter indeed, liurely the Marine De- 
partment of the Dominion would be justified, and not 
only justified^ but in duty bound, in consideration of 
such a life-long exile from all human society, save their 
own, to grant them a suitable salary during the re- 
mainder of their hitherto wasted years. 


On the 9th day of January 1869, John Connolly and 
his brother, Obadiah, saw a brigantine nearing the 
island, and soon saw her strike on a rocky islet, called 
Gull Rock, about one-fourth of a mile distant. The 
vessel proved to be from Sackville, N, B., bound to 
Barbadoes, with lumber and hay. The Connolly 
brothers started at once for tlie scene of the disaster, 
at the risk of their lives, and succeeded in rescuing the 


Bay of Fundt/ Islands and Islets, 

captain, officers and crew from a watery grave. The 
captain's name was Thomas lUancho ; the first mate, 
Charles Bent, N. S.; the second mate, Elijah Chase, 
Sackville, N. B.; and six seamen. 

The rescued mariners were conveyed to the residence 
of the keeper of the light, where they were kindly 
cared for for four days, when they were taken to the 
mainland in the f;chooner Dolphin, of Cutler, Me. 

Thus were the Connolly's instrumental in saving nine 
fellow-creatures from a watery grave — and that of itself 
is sufficient to entitle them to the consideration of the 
Ijl Government. It seems the island was called Seal 

II' Island, by reason of the great number of seals frequent- 

ing those rocks and islets. Little Gull Island, ^ mile 
distant from Seal Island, and Swean's Rock, about two 
miles distant, — a barren roek low out of water with 
ledges,— form a favourite resort for the porpoise and the 
seal ; while wild fowl make it their chosen lodgings when 
they fold a weary wing. During the long voluntary 
exile of the Connolly's on this most desolate abode in 
the Bay of Fundy, there were seven disasters, and, no 
doubt, had not the sailor's bright star of mercy been ; 
lighted night after night on that dreary rock, the num-" 
ber of wrecks and of lives lost within that 37 years 
would have numberd seventy times seven. There are 
now two lighthouses on Seal Island, and in addition a 
powerful €team fog- whistle, which can be heard in 
moderate weather at aidistance of 15 miles, in stormy 
weather from 5 to 8 miles, and with the wind from 20 
to 25 miles. < 

The keeper's dwelling has had necessary repairs, and 
the establishment is as well prepared as possible to 
warn vesiels of danger, and to provide for the comfort 
and seiurity of those who, to provide for the susten- 
ance of the body, isolate themselves from all society but 
that of fiih and fowl. 



hi Charlotte Covnty, New Bninswich. 73 



)n a 


le to 




'^^wT^HIS lovely little island-gem rests in ibo 
waters of the Passaraaquoddy ; but subject 
to the rushing tidal waters of the Bay of 
Fundy, in common with Deer Island, 
and all the smaller islands adjacent to 
them. It has been known by almost as many names as 
a lord, duke or earl, or even a prince of royalty, The 
red rover of forest and stream called it Jcganagoose ; 
then it received the name of Fish Island ; anon Perkins' 
Island ; again LeArterail ; finally, to stop this erratic 
love 0/ aliases, it obtained the present name Indian 
Island, which sounds a little more euphonious than 
Jeganagoose ; and yet it is rather singular that civiliza- 
tion delights in thus complimenting the descendants of 
those savage tribes by naming towns, villages, islands, 
and even railroad stations after them. 

Indian Island has Campobello on its south-east. Deer 
Island on the north-west, and Moo^e Island on the west 
and south-west. It holds about a central position 
among them. Nothing can surpass the beauty of its 
situation ; and the view of the surrounding islands — 
the Passamaquoddy Bay, the towns of Eastport, Lubeo 
and the bee-hive hamlet at Wilson's Beach on Campo- 
bello from this island — is exceedingly delightful. A 
view of Indian Island, too, from Fort Sullivan, the 
American fort at Eastport, and which, with lofty head, 
overlooks the surrounding waters (for Eastport is built 
upon Moose Head Island, as New York is upon Man- 
hattan) and the islands in them, enables the beholder to 
look over it to advantage. Its form is oblong, extending 
about a mile in length, and contains in area about 1 50 

Although compared in size to Moose Island, Campo- 
bello, or Deer Island, it may appear too small to demand 




Bau of Flinch/ Islaiuh and Isletftf 

more than a paasing notice, yet we find that Indian 
Island liiis a history of its own — a history entithn^ it to 
an eqnal posilion, at the Inast, on the papo of history. 
Gathering np the scattered leaves, and binding them 
together, they read our httle island'H history great in 
importance, greater far than many 'an island greater in 

It was probably first viHited by Frenchmen who ac- 
companied BeMonta or Champlain, about the time that 
Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia, then called Port 
Royal, was settled by the French. Indeed, tb re can 
hardly exist a doubt about it, or that the hand of the 
white man's art had been there and cultivated a portion 
of the soil ; for at the time that the earliest English 
settler, Chaffey, landed on the island, which was in 
1760, one hundred and sixteen years ago, he found 
sev<^ral openings in the woods, resembling garden plots, 
fringed with rows of currant bushes, having all the ap- 
pearit of having been (tultivated — many of them then 
growing and fruitful. In addition to those evidences 
that the white man had been there, and had cultivated 
vegetables, fruits and flowers, despite the presence of 
savage tribes, Mr. Chaffey had also discovered the 
foundations of fallen chimneys, which ruins were seen 
by his youngest child, who yet has a vivid recollection of 
having wandered among them in childhood, although 
now over eighty years of age. 

The descendants of James Chaffey claim that he was 
the first Englishman that ever wintered among the is- 
lands in the Passamaquoddy Bay, and that little 
Jeganagoose, lovely Indian island, was the identical 
place on which he landed as his chosen location. It is 
not impossible, neither improbable, but that fishermen 
from Old York might have entered those waters, follow- 
ing schools of fish, as the porpoise, or the whale, 
pursuing them even up the Saint Croix River during 
the spring and summer months, and so have had 
summer residences on the islands ; but the chances and 
circumstances are at present in favour of James Chaffey 
being entitled to the name and the fame of being the 
first white English settler on Indian Island. As such 
the claim is his and his descendants, until set aside 
by stronger proofs to the contrary. The disputing 

■ < I 




IS in 
B ap- 


CO of 

ion of 


le was 

the is- 


it is 


jB and 
ig the 
IS sucli 

In Charlotte Counti/, Xeir Brunswick. 76 

claimant might probably go into it with the doterrain- 
ation of the "Tichborne claimant," and with similar 
results — all but Newgate ! 

Our Indian Island Robinson Crusoe, James Cliaffey, 
was born in Somersofsbire, England, went to London, 
learned the trade of a goldsmith, and, with the love of 
adventure strong in his bosom, determined to leave his 
native England, aud see the now world, and gain a firm 
foothold for himself on the western hemis]>here, the 
great continent of America. He first found his way to 
Philadelphia. Had that city, at that time, presented to 
the eyes of the young adventurous goldsmith, the amaz- 
ing world of wealth and the world's productions, as in 
this, the Centennial exhibition of them, it may be 
easily presumed that he would have become one of its 
citizens. But Philadelphia in 1700 was not the Phila- 
delphia of 1876 ; and, after a brief sojourn there, with 
the spirit of travel, adventure and trade within him, he 
came down east, settled, as has been said, on Indian 
Island, and at once entered into the fur trade with the 
Indians. Neither Deer Island nor Campobello ( and 
venturing the assertion, until successfully contradicted) 
nor Moose Island (Eastport) can boast, as can lovely 
little Indian Island, of having the first house erected on 
it. The first house and the first store that astonished 
the wondering eyes of the Passamaquoddy Indians were 
built by James Chaffey, the Somersetshire boy and the 
London goldsmith, at that time, the Indian fur-trader 
of Passamaquoddy Bay. 

An unmarried man at the time, with no white as- 
sociate of either sex to cheer him in his solitude, it must 
have required an uncommon share of courage and love of 
adventure to reconcile him to an isolated existence, 
surrounded by day and by night with th( wild whoops 
of treacherous savages made yet more wild and frightful, 
situated on the little forest island, and surrounded with 
the rips, and tides, and fogs of the ever-changing, ever- 
eddying, ever- whirling, rushing, foaming, seething waters 
of the Passamaquoddy ! 

As fortune is said to follow the brave, so Chaffey was 
destined to experience a change in his condition. In 
the year 1768, a man by the name of John Lefontaine 
came from Port Royal to the island. Lefontaine, or, as 


Bay of Fundfi Tshinds <in<l Islets, 


* • ^' 


now is. Fountain, had boon at tlio takinj? of Quebec in 
1750, and Herved on board of one of the Britisli Hhipa as 
a sailor. Like the advonturoua Chaff oy, he, too, chose 
Indian Island as his future home. It was providential 
for Cliairoy, as Fountain had a very comely daughter, 
and good as she was comely. No wonder tliat the fur- 
trading bachelor, after having been associated with the 
sight of savage faces for eight long years, should have 
been captivated at beholding a handsome white maiden 
stand, like a bright star on a cloudy horizon, on Indian 

Our Passamaquoddy fur-trader saw and loved, and 
loved and wedded. By this happy union of too fond 
hearts, Chaflfey was the father of eleven children ; hut of 
all of that large family, not one liveth at the present day 
but the youngest, who resides on the island, and num- 
bers the years of the octogenarian, of whom mention 
has been made on a previous page. Following Foun- 
tain, several others came on in fishing smacks, remain- 
ing during the summer, and returning in fall and 
winter. A few, however, remained and settled on the 
island, and others, also, on Moose Island and among 
the other islands. 

Indian Island seemed to sit supreme among the other 
surrounding islands — the little sea-nymph of the bay ; 
for here was the head quarters for all the other islands. 
Chaffey was the trader. He carried on extensively in 
fish and fur, and wielded great influence among the 
Indians. He seemed to possess a power over them 
without manifesting any desire to exercise an arhitrary 
power. In his long business intercourse with them, he 
always maintained an inflexibility of purpose unswerving 
in his manner, of great decision and uncompromising 
firmness. The red man feared and admired this white 
man. His very fearlessness brought them to hecome 
his obedient traders, and they respected where they 
dared not resist. One instance of the power his moral 
courage possessed over those savage tribes may be given 
here. It roads as follows : During the American 
revolutionary war of 1776, Colonel Allen sent a party of 
Indians to' Chaffey to make him say he loved General 
Washington. Chaffey was confined to his bed at the 
time by illness. The savages approached his bed-side. 

In Ch:iri(>ttt} Count}], New Drunswick, 


rty of 
It tl^e 

floiirialied weapons, and ordoring Chaffoy's wife to give 
them tlie best in the hou'io to eat, with uplifted toma- 
hawks, and drawn knives, threats and threatening 
gestures, ordered Chulfey to obey. True to tliat firmness 
of resolve which had ever distinujuished him, he passed 
triumphantly through tlic trial of his courage and 
national fidelity ; and the Indians, as if kept at bay 
and ruled by an invisible power, left the house without 
accomplishing their purpose ! 

Through the influeuco of Chaffey, a man by the name 
of (loldsmith (in happy agreement with the name of the 
trade he learned), estabhslied salt works on the island — 
or rather was agent and manager for a company formed 
for the purpose. It was no inconsiderable enterprise, 
as the salt was manufactured from sea-water boiled up in 
large kettles. The business w^as prosecuted until all the 
wood on the island was consumed in boiling the kettles, 
and so had to desist. The island at the beginning of 
those unfortunate salt-works was clothed with a magni- 
ficent growth of all kinds of wood common to the 
country, and Chaffoy's aid in thus denuding the island 
of its valuable trees has been a source of regret to the 
people of the island, even to this day. His death oc- 
curred in 1796, leaving a widow and a large family in 
bereavement. Hon. William Todd (deceased), of St. 
Stephen, N. B., married several years ago a descendant 
of Mr. Chaffey. Now Indian Island began to receive 
fresh and new acquisitions. A Scotchman by the name 
of Daniel McMasters, from St. Andrews, established a 
fish store; then, Col. Thomas Wyev, also of St. 
Andrews, prosecuted the same business, then the late 
John Wilson, of Chamcook, traded in fish and lumber ; 
then a Mr. Freeman did a large business ; and about 
this time a Mr. Henderson, who had been Collector of 
Customs at Snug Cove, Campobello, was removed from 
his situation to Indian Island, and sat, like a modern 
Matthew, at the receipt of customs there. This was 
about the year 1811. This was the important embarffd^ 
epoch ; and, the new customs' officer is said to have per- 
forated his duty with vigilance and impartiality — never 
deviating from the strict line of rectitude. It was then 
that flour, principally, and goods of all kinds were mys- 
teHiously (a secret known only to expert smugglers) run 



Bay of Fiiiidy Idands and Tfdets, 

ovf^r from Ji^astport to tho islund on diirk iiip;lits ; and 
where naked beaches and sea-w.ills v/ero at sundown, at 
!-'unrise next morning and lon^' before it, thoHe boiiches 
iind sea->va]ls, were covered with immense piles and 
heaps of goods. OoUector Henderson, on seeing such 
h!ghts, would playfully tell the men near by : 'Must 
(dear away a path for me to walk i rough, so that I will 
not break my legs, and that will do i" \'-. •- ^^ 

Tiien it was that men ran great risks for the reward 
of great wages. Ten, fifteen,, twenty, thirty and even as 
hig'i as forty or fifty dollars a night for running contra- 
band goods from Eastporfc to Indian Island — a very short 
run ! The stern voice of the American sentry hailing 
the smuggler, with the imperious "Heave to that boat," 
followed by tLe sharp crack of tlie musket, were common 
tfirough the ([..I'kness and stillness of tho night : and 
yet tho boat glidcL ou, with muffled oar, for Indian Is- 
land's W3lcome beach. Many are the thrilling stories 
related ^ .' those eventful times — sufficient of themselves 
to form a romantic and tragical history of facts, as 
intensely fasci..- iting as the most exciting novel of im- 
aginary marvels.- In 1812, the first day after the 
declaration of war, a privateer arrived at Eastport. 
There were al^o three schooners at anchor in the cove 
at Indian Island. Two boats from the privateer, tilled 
with men armed to the teeth, came over to eapture the 
schooners. A few of the men of the island hastily col- 
lected on Chaliey's wharf, and as the armed boats 
neared the schooners, the Indian Islanders pointed their 
muskets at them, warning them not to come nearer at 
the risk of life. The privateersmen replied that they 
would return and bring over the privateer. Tho boats 
accordingly returned. Two of the schooners slipped 
their cables, and ran ashore on the beach, it being ebb 
tide ; and the other schooner, owned by Merritt, of St. 
John, N. B., started for St. Andrews. The privateer 
got under weigh ; but instead of crossing to the island, 
she gave chase to the schooner, and captured her just as 
she was entering St. Andrews Bay. Merritt, the owner, 
was on board and tho vessel had a full cargo of goods 
and produce, which proved a valuable prize to the 
f3nemy. Had he slipped his cable, as tho other 
schooners had, he would not have slipped into tlu; 


7/1 Charlotte County^ New Brunswick. 



,rev at 
■s tbey 
ig ebb 

i St. 

just as 
io the 
^to tl 


hands of the Yankee ; but such is an instance of tbe 
fortune of war. ; . <; 

Another inoidont, by way of reprisal, may be men- 
tioned. A scow, loaded with barrels of tar, was lying at 
Eiistport, which was broua"lit over to the island, ran the 
blockade, and was moored at a wharf. BoA'eral boats, 
full of men, crossed over to re-take the tar, when 
Joseph Freeman, Capt. of Militia, with a small band of 
his men, fired into them. T3ie. Eastporlers, instead of 
catching the tar, it seems, caught a tartar! An old 
Irishman, by tbe name of John Doyle, was one of Capt. 
Freeman's firing party, who, elated witli the result of 
what was in ■• dity a bloodless victory, gave vent to his 
patriotic enthusitism in a poetical effusion of forty lines. 
As a specimen of the whole, we give the following: ■';, 

v'"* ' "' *-'^ "My gun beinjj not wellloaded ' *. * . ";• 

I • r ,.r ••' It snnpp'd, boing all ill vuin; 

The btills came whistlitiy round my ears 
• " Just likn a sliowcT ol hail. • - - 

' But still we drove IhftTn to their boats 

, ,i ■■'. Without either di-ead or fears, 

And quickly we were re-inforctid 
:. "' By Doer Island volunteei-a." ^ 

The poet Doyle in the following verse feels it his duty 
to compliment the Campobello lads also on their readi- 
ness to assist in the tar-y conflict ; and thus he sings : / 

'•*The Campobello heroes, too, 
Behaved with, covirafro bold, 

Commanded by GoorRe Anderson, . , 

/ Who scorned to le controlled. ,. , ,. 

He in a valiant soldier 

For his Kinji and country's cause, . i . v , 
And he nia<i« the Doodle Dandies *■ ' ' 
Submit to British iuwa." 

And then the Irish melodist goes on to sing cf tho 
"Deer Island boys," "health to Capt. Lloyd, to Capt. 
Freeman, to Capt. Anderson," to the "Hucks of Garry- 
oweij," and to tho "Indian Island Imys." 

It is a truly patriotic song, and had our poet hero, 
John Doyle, only lived to have presented it to the 
British Grenadier Baud, to 1)6 sung in Boston at the 
time of the great "Musical Jubilee," his Idiss, earthly, 
would have been complete ; but it is to b» hoped his 
song now, no longer of earth earthy, is one of the sweet 
anthems of Heaven ! — of triumph over death and tht 
grave* . . 

II! U 


m » 


Bay of Fundy Islands and IslcU^ 


It was about tho period of this exploit that Eastport 
was taken by the British forces, and held in possf-.^siCii 
until the close of the war. It was not lo!i^ after the pro- 
clamation of the cessation of hostilities, before the angel 
of peace spread her healinf^ win<]^3 over the late contendinp^ 
parties and business intercourse revived. In 1818, 
Alfred Armstronf:^ was appointed sub-deputy treasurer 
for West Isles and Canifjoljeilo, by the then deputy 
treasurer at St. 'Andrews, Thomas VVj-er, Esq. — the 
office to be kept at Indian Island. In 1820, the sub 
was honored by the Legislature with full tleputy, in 
v/hich capacity he acted until 1822, when the olTicQ was 
closed, by the misrepresentations of interested parties, 
until tiie following year, 1823, wlien Alfred's brother, 
Richard, received the appointment. It was during the 
treasury-reign of Richard Armstrong, and under his 
auspices, that the big dwelling house, with custom 
house attached, was erected on Little Thrum Cap Islet, 
only sepi)r:)t('d from its kind mother, Indian Island, by 
a narrow channel a few yar-^.s wide. In 1824, ho left 
the big house, the custom house and Little Thrum 
jUap behind him, removing to the City of St. John. 

Another deputy treasurer, C. H. Jouett, Esq., was 
sent to take the vacated office ; and seating himself in 
the office, in the big house, on Little Thrum Cap, 
looked with wonddr and delight over the sparkling 
waters around him, and felt he was monra-ch of all he 
surveyed — all but Eastport, Moose Island, and depen- 
dencies — with the exception that he acted under certain 
restrictions, such as from entering any vessels except 
coasters. In 1826, however, permission was granted 
him to enter foreign vessels. Tliis was the harvest 
period for Indian Island. The trade was extensive tnd 
profitable, and a large number of vessels were engaged 
in the West India trade, carrying thither cargoes of fish 
and lumber, and bringing in return sugar, molasses, 
rum (not "white eye"), &c., which were re-shipped in 
large quantities on smaller vessels, which ran as 
pockets, and sent to St. John and other ports for sale. 

Then it was that the West India trade of Indian 
Island, West Isles, and Campobello excerded by one- 
half that of St. Andrews ; and the duties then paid into 
the Government treasury by the Parish oi West Isles 


In Charlotte Couvtij, Neiu Brunswick. 




1 lie 




in ted 



id in 

In as 






and Oampobello, were nearly one-half of the whole of 
the duties paid by Charlotte Comity. The principal 
husiness of those irJands was then in the hands of J. 
ik J. Chailey and Charles Gruay, at Indian Island ; by 
J. Patterson, Cadwallader Curry, and Wm. McLean, at 
Campobello, with a few smaller traders on each island. 
♦ vvThe folhnvinpf list of vessels, owned at Indian Island, 
in 1827, will afford the reader of to-day a good idea of 
its prosperity almost 50 years since :•. 





Indian Queen 


J. (fe J. Chaffey 

West Indies 

Elizabeth Mary 


(( It n 

Mary Stnhhs 


J., Patterson ' 

i ( t ( 

Eliza Ann 


<( (( -' ',^»' '-i 

Lady Douglas 


John McKenney 

Indian Chief 


W. Hatheway 

. •*' ' ■ 



Eben Scott V 

v._;. fi.^ ,^j 46 

V A very short time after the above period there were 
added to the above list — the following : 


Queen of the Isles Brig 
Caratier Juuett " 

Pappoose ** 

Eugenia " 

Lord of the Isles ** 

Le'Aterail Schr. 


J. & J. Chaffey 
Chas. Guay 


West Indies 

John McKenney 
Chas. Guay 






Here was a fleet of thirteen vessels, aggregating say 
3000 tons, engaged in trade between little Indian Island 
and the West Indies half a century ago. Where are 
they now ? And eclio answers — wliero ! Has the 
glory of those past days forever departed ? Is there not 
vitality enough in the Governments of^the present day 
to breathe new life over the islands of the bay ! 

In a,ddition to this fine little mercantile fleet, auraer- 
ous small coasters were busily employed in plying their 
vocatic^n, principally with St John and border ports. 
But the sun of prosperity which had shiiie<l so brightly 
ovv^r those islands for years, ripening them into the 
maturity of independent competence, became dim — a dark 
cloud appeared in the marine hoiizou, betokening coming 
ill to Indian Island and her sister isles. The West 




Bay of Fwulif Islands and Islets, 

India ports were, opened to Araericp.n vesself<, and soon 
the disastrons effects to. the little Indian Island fleet 
befranie appai-erit. The Wti-it India market bad found 
new channels of trade, the little fleef" i^frew less, hnsiness 
declined; and, as ii' to consnrnnDate the rain of the 
trade, death came, too, and snatched away from amonj,^ 
the living the most active, enerp^otic, leadinii; merchant 
of the island, John Cliaiiey. This event, deplored hy 
nil tlje survivors, for ail felt his loss, occurred in 1835. 
If no charch !)ell tolled his demise, his death was the 
death-knell of an expiring trade, as in a very brief lapse 
of time only one vessel, the Brij? Chaifeij, remained as a 
solitary witness of the departed fleet. Nor that lone 
star in the ^^dooniy horizon long to shine. The Chaffei/ 
was wrecked in 1349. 

Since the death recorded of Mr. John ChafFey in 1835 
very little else but fishing has been the business pursuit, 
and that so quietly that a passer-by Avould almost con- 
clude that the fishermen have transmigrated into 
somnambulists ! ^ 

Returning to tlio deputy treasurer, C. H. Jouett, 
Esq., it may be right to say that when he removed to 
St. John, in 1836, Capt. Thomas Moses received the 
appointment,* He, too, sat at the receipt of custom, 
like his predecessor, in the big hause on the little islet. 

The Government, after a time, united the treaprUr- 
ersliip and the collectorship into one ; and then Capt, 
Moses came down from his Thrum Cap pinnacle, stepped 
across the narrow channel, entered a gal];int cratt, with all 
the pomp /nd state of Cleopatra, and iand(Xj at Welchpooi, 
Campobello, as collector and treasurer. Capt. Mo«ef! 
retained this joint office until his death, which fK*.curred 
in 1831. In July of the same 3'ear, J. E. Dixon, Esq., 
of Indian Island, received the appointment of deputy 
treasurer and collector for West Isles and Campobello, 
the Government remt)ving the office to Indian Island, 
but not to the big liouae on the Little Thrum Cap ! 
Mr. Dixon was not so elevated. The house, like 
Solomon's Temple, fell! ' , • 

In 1860, Campobello became the honored and hftfpy 
recipient of separat.e office and a separate collector, 
as Welchpooi felt its dignity insulted by Little Indian 
Inland Bitting in majesty and ase^ndaiicy over it. 

tid to 

■b all 

land , 
Cap 1 




In CharhMe County, New Brunsu'ick. 


:>; 'S/y 


The history of In.lian Iskiid would be incomplete 
without the liistory of the Fenian invasion of 18G6. It 
was prbvious^y supposed that the Province of Ojitario, 
Canada West, would be tlie scene of its marauding 
attacks, and that.thty would be CiUihned to it. It 
proved otherwise. ;,l ■^t:?;:^;;.;- .f:»M- 

The s]>rin.jjf of that year had hardly opeued, when 
Faniaiir. I)egan to cougre^^ate ai. Eastport, Me., as a 
chosen place to rendezvous, and in large numbers. 
Under the leadership of a fellow by the name of Killian, 
who seemed well-fitted to lead a band of raffians, they 
commenced "training" on a sandy beach, at the foot of 
a long range of bank, a few rods above Dog Island ; and 
as this beach is nearly opposite Indian IsJand, their 
military teachings were observed quite clearly. They went 
through a daily "drill" at that place, from which they 
could plainly see tlie bated British flag Hying at the 
custom h Hise. Killian and bis braves, eager to v/in 
fame as Iveroes, without losing any blood in the attempt, 
saw a good opportunity l)y taking that flag. According- 
ly, on the night of tiie 14th of April 1866, they crossed 
over to Indian Island, proe^^iedcd as stealthily as Indians 
on the v.'hite man's trail, and suirounding the residence 
of the customs' olilcer, Mr. Dixon, they knocked 
riolentiy at the door for admittance. Mrs. Dixon was lying 
very ill at the time ; and u> there were ladies in the 
room watching with the sick hidy, one went to the door, 
without opening it, asking who was there. A voice 
replied: "We want that Englisli flag, (iive it quickly, 
or we will burn down the house.'' The collector, Mr. 
Dixon, was up stairs at the time ; but hearing an unusual 
noise below, at once hastily dressed, and went to the door. 
Hearing the threats outside, he opened the door, when 
pistols were levelled at him, with a demand to give up 
the flag. At this time he heard others trying to tear off 
the v^findow shutters. 

Taking in the inevitable, and the danger to Mrs. 
Dixon by this midnight attack, he thought, and thought 
msely, that prudence in this case was the better part of 
valoar, and surrendered to those worse than Italian 
banditti, the flag that had waved over the oustuin 




Bay of Fandy Ishuidh and Islets, 

house. Those valiant Feniiins, havinpf performed such 
a f(iilln.nt exploit, returned to Eastport, taking with them 
the British flag, as a bloodless trophy of unparalleled 
heroism. No wonder that liasf was sent on to New 
York, to the **Head Centre" office, to be displayed there 
as the first flag taken on the battle field ! • '/' •-•■ 

A day or two previous to this cowardly act, an Eng- 
lish man-of-war, the P/jladcs, Capt. Hood, arrived at 
Welchpool. On Sunday morning (the flag was taken on 
Saturdiiy night) the circumstance was laid before the 
captain of the Pt/lcuPa ; a telegram was sent to Beverly 
Robinson, Esq., St. John ; the tocsin of alarm was 
heard from St. John to St. Stephen. St. George, St. 
Andrews, and even l^ocabec felt the insult and the 
outrage, and the old lion of old England began to stir 
himself, even among the colonists. 

The newspapers took U[) the cause ; and the largest 
capitals of the largest type admissible in the columns of 
a newspaper, contributed to extend the report of this 
Fenian outrage, and a call to arms ! - • •> 

The taking of this flag was accepted as a warning 
note to prepare to resist invasion ; and it was pleasing 
])roof of British pluck to witness the alacrity with which 
that warning note was taken up and acted upon. Only 
one week passed away ere a band of those 
ing Fenians again visited Indian Island. 

On the night of April 21st, they landed at Guay's 
whflrf, on which stood four large stores — two of them 
having been built a very short time previously. They 
set fire and burned those four stores to ashes ! The 
Queen's warehouse was in one of them, containing a 
large quantity of liquors and other goods — brandy, rum, 
gin, wines, whiskey, tea, tobacco, &c., &c., with a large 
supply of salt. All was consumed by the hands of those 
incendiary braves ! 

Capt. Hood of the Pi/lades had been notified the pre- 
vious evening of the apprehended danger, with request 
to send a guard for protection ; but the man-of-war 
captain disregarded the fears and the application as too 
trifling to require precaution. The event proved the 
necessiiv . 

The flames had been seen from the Pylades, and 
Lieut. ViJall with a boai d crew crossed over to ascer- 




In Charlotte Count if, New Brunswick. 








tain particnlavs. Another war vessel, the Diutcan, hafl 
arrived from Halifax, 1)eiiriii<; the flag of Hear Admiral 
Sir Jame:^ TIo|K3, and haviii<]r General Doyle on board. 
On the atternoon of the day after tlie fire, Admiral 
Homo, General Doyle and Capt. Hood rame to the 
island and visited the scene of the late eonflagratiorj, 
and made strict enquiry of the taking of the flag from 
the custom house. A guard of marines and sailorw 
from the wiir ships were sent over, and the new school 
house Wits placed at their disposal, and did good se'-vice 
as a guard house. Troops and volunteers now pourod 
into all thri border tf>v.'ns ; intense excitein(;nt prevailed 
all over the province — especially in Fredericton, St. John 
and the frontier towns and rural districts adjoining. 
Governor Gordon telegi-aphed to Indian Island, to have 
the books, papers and all documents appertaining to the 
collector's office removed to Welchpool ; but, after a 
•;nard was put on the island, the order for removal was 

A gunboat next came to add to the fleet of war 
vessels—- the liosario — bringing a civil engin^jer, Mr. 
Innes, to inspect and report on the erection of fortifica- 
tions ; and a crew of men from the Roaimo were 
directed to throw up embankments around the school 
house (.i>r.ard iiouse), and to intrench it with a stockade. 
Tlie ships relieved each other, by sending their portion 
of crews as guards — one from the Pf/lades, the Nificr 
(Lieut. Boxer), the Fa ivn (Capt. Hall), the Cordelid, 
(Lieut. Ogilvie); and after those ships left our waters, 
Lieut. Wilniot arrived from St. John with a detachment 
of volunteers ; and following after, Lieut. Chandler \vith 
volunteers from St. Andrews and Fredericton. 

An attempt at a night attack by two large boats, fully 
armed, was made on one occasion, which was summarily 
disposed of. A sentry of the St. John volunteers dis- 
covered the boats, and at once fired into them. The 
rifle report soon brought out the guard, and a general 
rush was made, in true volunteer style, too impatient 
for a fight to wait to "fall in" with military precision, 
(or the scene of action. The quick, sharj) rattle of 
musketry was heard at Welchpool; and from the Niger, 
Lieut. Boxer's ship lying at anchor there, went up sky 
rockets, blue lights and signals. The Nhjcr slipped 



i! >( 


Bay of FitncJy InhDids nvil IsJefs<, 

I' , 

her cable, and came on in full speed of steam, with her 
fighting-lamps all aglow— officers, marines and sailors 
eager for a fray ! While thus speeding on for ac- 
tion, the Fenian nrmed boats passed the Nif/cr un- 
detected, hasting on for Eastport, their harbour of 


• s^i: 

A British naval olTicer, Capt. Napier, Avould not wait 
for his boat to touch the beach in order to laud ; bat, 
with his blood up, jumped for the shore from the bow of 
the boat, and landed in pretty deep water, although not 
cooling his sanguine hopes of a light with Mr. Fenian 
and Mr. Killian ! ^ v;--; i .^ ; .,^^v :,iiH>' 

This attempt of another Fenian raid, after the taking 
of the flag and tlie burning of the }-.tores, was the last 
one by them. Ijike birds of passage, only earlier, they 
began to take wing and go south to New York ; and 
'before autumn, the excitement began to subside, gradu- 
ally declining, until it finally died out altogether, 
(reueral Meade, of the U. S. army, had been sent on to 
Eastport and Calais, to put a stop to the designs of the 
Fenians. But the tardiness of the apparently kind 
interference was too visible to blind the eyes of the 
provincialiats. Had the English war vessels, the regular 
troops of the British army, and the volunteers of New 
Brunswick not put in an appearance until General 
Meade came, the Fenians could have had things all to 
themselves and in their own way. The town of Elast- 
port relied always to a great extent on the trade of the 
very islands attempted and intended to be invaded by 
those blood thirsty Fenians ; and it did seem to come 
with an ill grace from them towards those provincial is 
lands to permit the Fenians to rendezvous among them 
— to open their hotels, and in many cases their private 
houses to them, and to sanction their organizing and 
drilling on the outskirts of their town for the avowed 
purpose of invading their friendly neighbours and pro- 
fitable customers, the people of Camnobello and West 
Isles. After all, in justice to the good people of 
]^]astport, perhaps, they were, in the case of the Fenians, 
more sinned against than sinning ; for Killian and his 
hundreds of brigands would care little for the people or 
authorities of Eastport, unless supported by their 
(.Tovernmeut, wdiich support was uoti JQi'th-comiug until 

In Charlotte County, Xetv Brunswick, 87 

le of 
(d his 
jle or 

General Meade and his ''boys in blue" put in their dis- 
claimer af^ainst Fenian invasion. 

Bctbro quite diamissiinjf the suhject-inatter of this 
intended invasion, it raay be well to remark that the 
American Government ou;]jht to have kncmn, and did 
know, that there was a friendlj' inter.'ourse and a bond 
of commercial amity existinjyj l)etween the town of pjast- 
port and those islands ; and that Government ought to 
have known, and did know, that the perpetration of 
villainous outrajjfes on th()S( islands, by lawless hordes of 
Fenians, would destroy that friendship — would cancel 
that amicable bond, and li^ht the torch of antagonism 
that after years wonUl hardly extinguisli. The provin- 
ciaUsts have never, since 1866, given the Amerujan 
Governient credit for promptitiid of action in efforts 
to suppress the hostiUty of provincial enemies, especially 
during the Fenian excitement. The tardiness evinced 
too much of indifference. 

Indian Island, as we have seen, from its earliest 
history to a very recent period, has heen the mart for all 
the surrounding islands, not only the mart of trade, but 
for all else. Here was tlie chosen spot by the red man 
as a charnel-house for the dead. Here the mournful, 
plaintive ''ugh" of savages,' over the remains of one of 
their tribe, would blend in strange cadence with the 
moaning surf-song of the whirling tides. There is a 
circumscribed spot, yet extant and plainly visible, known 
as the Indian Island burying ground to attest to the 
fact that the Indians brought their dead from the ad-^, 
joining islands to Indian Island for interment. Even 
those savages had an eye for rural scenery and a love for 
a rural cemetery. 

As the Province of New Brunswick progressed, and 
members were elected for the House of iVssembly, the 
election law of those days gave no less than fifteen days 
wherein to complete the great work ! The inhabitants 
of those islands, even to Grand Manan, had to attend 
the polling at Indian Island ! The last four, elected 
under that dear old law (dear in many ways) were Wyer, 
Hill, Clinch and Brown. And here, too, under the old 
militia law, the male population of the surrounding 
islands mustered to learn their drill, the art of war. 
Three davs consecutivelv were devoted to that all im- 


Bay of Fundy lalands and Inhts, 

V-- I!. 


poriaut duty, aiid imilcv tho lca(l(MBliip of C(>loneI 
McKay of St. Geor«T:e, and succeedhi*,' him, Colonel 
TIfitch of St. 'Andrews, the militia of thoao Hoa-girt. 
isles succeeded amazinj^ly in ucquiilrifj a proficiency in 
keepiiif^ Kto]> to^^etlier, by treadiupf on one another's 
heels to su^li a decree that the poor militia man, af- 
Hicted with chilblains, learned to endure punishment 
Av'ith the stoical yilence of the red man about tu suti'u/, 

Those days are fre(piently alluded to as the ''good old 
days" when West India rum flowed like milk, iii;d West 
India sugar was sweet as hout^y; when (.'verybody treated 
everybody ; when everybody got merry ; when -fy^i'^;^^ 
body would sing, swear, dance and light! - 

On those election days and militia days, it was that 
little Indian Island held high carnival. It was- fit those 
evontbil, now historic periods, that the people of the 
various islands of Charlotte County congregated, anil 
revelled in unity of drink aral song, if not in sentiment, 
renewing annually the friendship of fog for saltwater. 

Retrospectively, since the period when the enterpris- 
ing James Chaffey, whose history in brief is before the 
reader, up to the present day, what changes ! The old 
merchants — where are they ? The goodly West India 
fleet of merchantmen — where are they '? The lish and the 
fur trade — wheie? The big house on Little Thrum Cap 
— wliere ? 'ilie large stores — where ? All gone ! But, 
consolatory thought, the dead but sleep — they will 
rise again ! And the loved island, that once knew^ 
them, 3-et remains to remind the living of the virtues of 

the departed. p.,:^^^M'^^^iM.^i\ .^ . . . 

Indian Island although shorn of much of its pristine 
gloiy, yet stands out in beauty, surrounded by the same 
rushing, eddying, sparkling waters tliat erst w-ashed its 
shores, reflecting all around it the goodness of Him who 
smiled upon it, as one of His handiworks, when the 
"morning stars sang together and all the sons of God 
shouted for joy." ^^,^ . ..^^^r. 


Jv-m ?*:<*•.?; 

hi Charlotte County^ New Brunswick. 


i i .i ». iM|4l J3 tt.WW w i>Wi< , l i Ujif M l — - 





,es of 



[d its 





C^ii AFTER V. 

' Dy.En ISLAND. 


HE earliest history of tlis fine island obtain- 
I able at the present time, dates l)ack soii ■ 
60 years, and the chanf]res eflVeted in a 
new and sparsely inhabited conntry in even 
a century are not few; und Deer Island, 
witliin file last fifty or sixty years, as will be seen, has 
kept good pace with her sister islt-s of the Bay of Fundy 
in tlie march of improvement. 

IiOokin<Tf at Beer Islnnd, then, through the dim vista 
of years, what do we see ? The flowing tides marking 
its coast-line and washing its coves and sheltered inlets, 
without,' perchance, even an Indian's bark canoe to 
i'elieve the monc. ny of tlie s(.'ene. The isltind, covered 
chiefly with forost pine — tail, straight, sound and large 
enough for shiphnilding purposes — seemed to wave their 
lofty tops invitingly for the introduction of the white 
man's axe. 

The time was just at hand when civilization was? to 
effect a change, and squatters pioneered the introduction. 
The rude log hut, speedily erected and nestled among 
the stumps of the fallen princely pines, became the cozy 
home of the hardy woodman ; and ships were built to 
navigate far distant seas, never more to re-visit that 
Deer Island the place of their nativity. Situated as 
Deer Island is in the margin waters of the Bay of Fundy, 
it is justly entitled to be classed as one of its islands. 
Although a large portion of its shores is washed by the 
waters of Passamaquoddy Bay and St. Andrews Bay, it 
may also lay legitimate claim to those noble sheets of 
water as well. Deer Island stands at the head of all 
the other islands which comi)rise the Pii isli of West 
Isles, and is in fact greater in area and business import- 
ance than all the others combined. No wonder, then, 
that once within the range of civilization it soon assumed 









•in m ijiiiM IlliU 




1 1.8 
1-4 11.6 





^^ # ^''''^>'' 

^># ^> 











WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 










Bay of Fnndif Idaiuls and lahU, 

an iiiiportaiit poKitioii and its population rapidly increas- 
ed. It could not Ite (*tlier\vif:e. Lying at the mouth of 
tlie splendid River St. Croix, and open to the Bay of 
Fundy, at all seasons of the year ; covered with a {growth 
of stately pines, even to the mar«ifins of its coves and 
harhours ; teeminn- with fish around its coast, and 
presentinpj such an inviting field for artisan and fisher- 
man ; — no wondrtr that it soon became a favourite resort 
for industry and enter])rise. '^Hiat the aboriginal red 
man had, at some previous time, pitched his wigwam 
ainong the sheltered valleys of the island, was clearly 
enough to be seen — the sqaatters having discovered 
numerous heaps of chim shells adjacent to sovae running 
stream or living spring. The traces of Indian life were 
discernible; but nothing to justify the conclusion that 
the French, during their earlier occupation of the country 
to the English, had ever made for any of themselves a 
home on Deer Island. It does not appear tluit the 
island at any period was ever much of a hunting ground, 
for at the present time nothing more than a few wild 
water fowl, rabbits and patridges offer sport for the 
sportsman's gun. And, going back 50 years, po game 
in addition to the present were seen except the fox, who 
at the advent of the squatters would yelp out his sharp 
fox-bark through the stillness of the night, as if i?i 
concert with the discordant hooting of the owl. But as 
white men multiplied, and poultry increased, it was 
found expedient and necessary to exterminate the hen- 
thief as best they could ; and as trappe)'s were not there 
to entrap the wily foe and depredator, recourse was had 
to poison and to the entire destruction of the fox ; 
so that now and for yejirs past the rooster can crow and 
the hen can cackle over her fresh laid-egg, all undis- 
mayed at the apprehension of a raid by Reynard on 
their peacful and happy domain. 

Deer Island has an irregular and broken coast or 
shore line, some thirty miles in extent, its greatest 
length about seven miles, and averaging four in its 
breadth. Its area may be computed at 14,000 acres. 
Taking Chocolate Cove as a starting point (this cove is 
immediately opposite the small but lovely island called 
Indian Island at its north end) and following along the 
eastern cost is Bar Island, then North-west Harbour, 

j: It 


it as 








[ on 

It or 




re in 




In Charlotte 'Cauni ft, New Brunsuick. 


Lord's Cove, Lambert's Cove, Northern Hurboiir, and 
])assinf( a high head bind etiUed Clam Cove Head, is 
seen Fairhaven, and lastly Cummings' Cove; thus raak- 
in<( the circuit of the island along its shores, are eiglit 
commodions and well-sheltered harbours, where coasters 
can tind havens of refuge from the perils of the sea. 
With sncli natural facilities for trade, the islanders 
themselves have not been neglectful to take advantage. 
A well-filled store is kept at Ciimmings* Cove, another 
at Bar Island, while Lord's Cove lords it over the others 
]>y having two stores, with one at Fairhaven. In addi- 
tion to those five stores, considerable trading in small 
articles is carried on in i)rivate houses. 

Education, the hand-maid of religion, is well sup- 
])orted and encouraged here. There are six schools 
under the local inspection of Chariot' e County located at 
the principal coves and harbours ; and several young 
teachers of ability have ali-eady found their way from a 
Deer Island schoolhouse into other parts of the County, 
reflecting credit on their birth-place, their teachers and 
themselves. The spiritual \velfare of the people are 
carefully attended to by Campbellite, Methodist, and 
Free Will Baptist pastors. The Campbellites have a 
pretty firm foothold at Bar Island Harbour ; the Metho- 
dists are gradually increasing ; but, at present date, the 
Free W^ill Baptists are in the ascendant, outnumbering 
all others by large figures. 

Like the other islands iu the Bay of Fundy, its shores 
are rocky ; but, with the exception of Clam Cove Head 
and a few other high bluffs, the land presents but little 
difficulty in obtaining safe landing at all parts. The 
island, having been shorn of its proud pineries, produces 
now a mixed growth of hard and soft wood, very well 
adapted to the building of small vessels and fishing 
boats. The soil, where cultivated, produces good crops 
of potatoes, grass, oats and vegetables ; and garden 
ilowers, skillfully cultivated, bloom luxuriantly, and 
many a pretty bouquet is made up and presented by fair 
hands to her favoured swain. Dame Nature, too, at ^.he 
proper time affords an ample supply of ripe and delicious 
i)errie8, which find a ready market on the island and in 
Eastport, especially on Independence Day. 

The fisheries iu the waters all around the island, and 

f / 


Bay of Fundif hlan(U>and Islets, 

m ' U\ 

' ■ 1 

':■, 'if 

«. *• 


11' ~\ 

outside of its vicinit/y afford employment to a larj^e and 
an ever-increasin<j^ popnlation of a hardy and an 
iiidus.'.rioas people Fairliavcn seems to be the priucipaJ 
port, of the island. At all events, it carries the lead in 
sendin^( out four large coasters and two bankers, besides 
several vessuls of small(;r size. About 25 years a^o, 
Ciimmings' Gove carried off the palm, as a shipyard was 
esi.ablished there whicli turned out several large 8hi])s. 
and as a consetjuence. lar<Te houses were erected in the 
vicinity; but, for several years past, a business mildew 
has passed over it. Shijjbuilding is no more, and the 
imposinpf edifices are dilapidated; for those who erected 
them liave passed away to that "silent bourne whence 
no traveller returns," while those who have iniierited 
their property do not seem to have inherited witli it the 
business ae.'ivity and enterprise oftheir worthy ancestors. 
Bat such valua!)le characteristics do not come within the 
range 01 legacies and bequeathments, neither are they 

TI16 island is well watered with running brooks, and 
a few of them afford amusement for the juvenile angler 
in catching the speckled treat. Numerous springs of 
excellent water are found on almost all parts of the 
island. There are also several tiny lakes, with but ou(^ 
meriting special notice, which is k6own as North West 
Harbour Lake, taking its name from its location. It is 
al)out two miles long and one mile broad ; and, contrary 
to reasonable expcctatio)!, contains no iish — an exception 
to almost all other fresh water lakes. 

There are no minerals, nor any indications of ores, so 
far as geological investigations liave extended ; but 
although nature may not have deposited any of her 
precious eggs in Deer Island soil, yet Captain Kidd, or 
some other piratical rover of the seas, may have buried 
pota of doubloons and Spanish dollars on its wild unin- 
habited shores in some of its manv secluded nooks, 
where a "triple tree grows from a sin^e trunk," or a 
"cairn of stones" raises its mysteriously hydra-headed 
watch-guard over the spot Avhicli hides the precious coin. 
When such strange sights are seen, then the dreamer of 
buried pots of gold and of silver may begin to dig, with 
every reasonable prospect of being disappointed. 

The roads on the island are generally dry and good ; 

In Charlotte County, I^eiv Brunswick. 93 





Jor u 




Ivut what strikes a stranger as something strange and 
peculiar is the number of gateways to arrest his progress 
on his travel. To have to halt and open and shut 
gateways, take down and put up bars, every mile (less 
or more, as the case may be), seems a tax unnecessary 
on time and ' patience. One consolation is, however, 
that you have the privilege of working your way onward, 
as no toll-gate keeper stands with open palm to take 
loose change from you. A change may be effected by 
road commissioners in the future, and the gate system 
on Deer Island will only then be spoken of as a thing of 
the past. 

The largest part of the the travel is, ho\vever, from 
cove to cove in boats ; and, as a consequence, there are 
but few horses, wagons, bridles, saddles, whips or spurs, 
in requisition. It would be a rare sight to see a young 
lady and her beau cantering along the road on horse- 
back.^ The more healthy exercise of w^ilking, when not 
boating, is indulged in ; and the robust appearance of 
both sexes is undeniable evidence of the superior claim 
of pedestrianism over all other modes adopted for health- 
ful recreation. 

The tide, as it rushes in on the flood from the Bav 
of Fundy and among the small islets and ledges and 
points of land jutting out from the islands, keeps the 
rising waters in one continual whirl of agitation — and in 
many places the utmost care is required to save small 
boats from destruction. The most dangerous place 
around, or among the West Isles, is at the southern ex- 
tremity of a point of land extending from Deer Island 
between Chocolate Cove and Cummings' Cove. On tin 
flood, and especially at half-flood, it is extremely dan 
gerous for boats to approach near the point, as the 
whiripools rage furiously, like an immense boiling 
cauldron, in the vicinity, attended with fearful loise, 
which of itself is alarming, but proves a friend vO boat- 
men on dark nig^its by its timely warning. The boatmen 
of Passamaquoddy Bay, familiar as they are from 
boyhood with the tides, eddies, ledges and whiripook, 
have but little difficulty in avoiding all danger, and a 
fatal accident among them seldom occurs. About 26 
years ago, three brotliers named Stover, were unfortun- 
ately drawn into those whirlpools, and despite their 



i ' 
I j 

I ; 





if t'^ 


7)('r?/ of Fundi/ Ishtrpchi and Inlets, 

.' ut 

most desperate exertions to save themselves, vrere 
s-van.nved u]>, l)oat and all, in the yawjiing junilf of 
sectliirifjf -WHtei-s. T]iey ^^'ere distinctly seen at the time 
of the lamentable disat-ter hy men on tlie deck of an 
Kastfjort schooner ; hut it \vas impossible to render 
them aiu .tssisiHiice. A boat v.iifn once fairlv within 
the nierciiess veast of roarinf? ^vavcs is beyond the reach 
of aid, and tbe destruction is as swift as it iw certain. 
At the most dangerous time of tide, large two-masied 
boats would have but slender chance of escape, if ouco 
^vithin the power of th(;Ke whiri]iools. Like dealing with 
the celebrated au-d drcjided Maelstrom on the coabt of 
Norway, the surest way to avoid danger is to keep at 
juudeut distance, or in sea-terni, give them a wide berth. 
At other times of tide than the ilood, not much risk, if 
any, lis run by passing through those waters, which are 
then Hs harmless as they are noiseless. Before closing 
the notice of thosje whirlpools, it may not be alto{|^ther 
oat of place to refer to a circumstance connected with 
them, possessing a little of the ludicrous. A person, 
now deceased, who during his latter years resided on 
Deer Island and adjacent to Chocolate Cove, was in the 
habit of visiting Eastport, almost every week, crossing 
over in a small boat by himself. Prone to i)artalie of 
that which does inebriate, he would seldom leave East- 
port on his return-trip free from the influence of his 
favorite, beverage, and as he neared the frightful whirl- 
pools, which raged almost within his course for home, 
he, not unmindful of the danger, would commence to 
Hi^-'g a hymn suitably worded for one in extremity, and 
so continue to sing plaintively and in pious strain until 
he passed the whirlpools and felt assured that danger 
W|is past in the passing. He would, even in sober con- 
versation on the subject, attribute his preservation to his 
hymn-sung-prayer, and not to any skill in steering his 
tiny craft clear of the raging waters. It may have been 
HO. Who dare gainsay it ? At all aveutsH, the whirl- 
pools never caught him. 

Tbe many romantic islets adjacent to Deer Island are 
not the least of its attractions. They are various and 
varied. There is the White Horse — not quite so whitC;, 
however, as the white horse King William rode, when 
crossing the Boyne water. This noted small island is 

In Charlotte Couiitij, Xeir Brunsicick. 


to hiR 
|g his 

1(1 are 




ind is 

situnted abnost at the ceutro of the montb of tl e 
Le'Etite passage, which runs swiftly on the flood into 
St. Andrews Bay. T]ie White Horse is a hold rock, 
with some short {j^riiss clotliin^ its summit. Sea-birds 
are tlie only livinuf thinji; that resort to it. The watei' 
is bohl all around it and it would be difficult to find a 
eheltered nook large enough to protect a small ])oat in a 
storm. • It is a good guide, liowever, to the entrance of 
the Lo'Etite passage. In closer ]>roxinjity to Deer Is- 
land, are Pope's Folly (where* poor Pope, in 181'2, 
estal)lishcd a trading post and lost all), Casco Bay 
Island, Spruce Island^ Snnd Island, and "White Island. 
Cherry Island may be termed Little Thrum Cap's twin 
sister, being so clos' ly allied to it and so similar in its 
appearance. Those several little islets clastered around 
the eastern part of Deer Island are very ()icturesqi^e, and 
some of them would suit admirably for pic-nics, and 
gatherings of social parties, who enjoy the sweet shade 
of pretty umbrageous trees, with the dash of the salt 
water wave against the base of their verdant repose. 
The history of Deer Island in the pr4,st is so interwoven 
v>-ith that of Indian Island, that the reading of the latter 
may serve for the former, so far as the settlement of 
those islands by the whites is concerned. 

The proximity of Deer Island to the towns of St. 
George and St. Andrews, as well as to the American 
town, Eastport, renders it conveniently situateu for trade, 
and affords close communication with those towns, en- 
abling Deer Island, to a certain extent, to participate in 
tl^ir advantages. 

A son of Mr. John Cook, the person who introduced 
the lobster factory business on Grand Manan, started a 
similar establishment on Deer Island. It cotild not be 
the paucity of the mateiial that caused the relinquish- 
ment of the factory, as the large lobster factory 
enterprise in the town of St. Andrews has always been 
well supplied with lobsters ; and yet the shores of the 
isLmds, and the north shore generally, seem to possess 
an inexhaustiole su]>ply. 

The salubrity of the island speaks loudly in its fav- 
our. A medical gentleman, taking up a permanent 
residence on Deer Island, and depending on lancet, 
blisters and pills, among the people, would have to forego 



Bay of Fundy Inlnnda (ni<l Taleisi, 

Ms vocation, and either follow the ex-lohster proprietor, 
Mr. Cook, by leaving the island, or try the hook-and- 
line nmonfj the rips for tish for a chowder. 

Deer lalrnd, however, is not totally exempt from "all 
the ills that flesh is heir to"— that could not he. 
Doctor Gove, Junr., of St. Andrews, seemed to he the 
favourite physician among the Deer Island people. This 
young disciple of Esculapius, became very- ])opukr on 
the island ; and he seemed to reciprocate the kindly 
feeling and high opinion so freely accorded him. Tour- 
ists and invalids could advantageously remain here 
during a part of the summer season, the one for 
pleasure, the other for health. 

The Parish of West Isles must always maintain an 
important position in the County of Charlotte. In the 
causa of temperance Deer Island shines out luminously 
and nobly. No license-money for rum-selling goes 
from Deer Island into the county treasury box. Pro- 
hibition is hers. The flag of total abstinence waves 
proudly over )ier rocky hills and verdant valleys. Deer 
Island has set an example to her sister isles worthy of 
all imitation ; and Grand Manan, to her credit be it 
said, has sent up her disclaimer against a licensed blight 
upon her shores. If one thing .more than another calls 
for the meed of praise for Deer Island, it is th»'t firm 
stand she has taken in the cause of temperance. It will 
prove her polar-star to prosperity. It will keep the 
bloom of health fresh upon the cheek of an industrious 
populace. And her bright example may be wafted 
over the Bay of St. Andrews, into the good old shire 
town, and permeate through its quiet streets, until 
"wholesale and retail" of bacchanalian drinks shall be 
banished forever. Then will the Jubilee-song of re- 
demption from the chains of the cruel tyrant^ intemper- 
aucy, be sung in sweeter strains of joyous melody, than 
the national and patriotic songs of Jeannie Watson, of 
Scotland, or of Rosa D'Erina, of her own loved Ireland. 

Should that happy era ever arrive. Deer Island's 
triumphant struggle for liberty will place her in the fore- 
most rank — in the vanguard-battalion of the temperance 
army that fought for the freedom of the nations. That 
will be the brightest jewel in the history of Deer Island, 
"shining brighter and brighter unto the perfect day." 


In Charlotte County, New Brunswick, 97 



111, of 






■ y^'^J^jHE same authority ("Calkin's Gco<T:rAphy") 
mfJiO K Avhioli describes Grand Manan as 20 miles 


long and 8 miles broad, also describes 
Campobello as 8 miles long and 4 or 5 
miles broad. The reader of this little his- 
tory, as well as the writer of it, must bow acquiescently 
to Calkin's Text-book. But for the sake of courtesy, 
admittiiTg its correctness, it will not do to be so credu- 
lous as to believe the Map of New BrunsAvick, 1867, 
which places Wilson's Beach, near Head Harbour, 
opposite Lubec ! The south-eastern coast-line of this 
valuable island is irregular .and broken, presenting no 
sheltered harbour from Owen Head at the western pas- 
sage until quite up to Head Harbour at the eastern 

Admitting the island to be 8 miles long and 4 miles 
broad, and that in configurrttion it is a right-angled par- 
allelogram, then its area would contain over 20,000 
acres; but from its broken coast line and large areas of 
water at Welchpool, Harbour de Lute, Wilson's Beach, 
Herring Cove and at Head Harbour, the total area of 
rock and soil cannot be more than, say 15,000 acres. But 
tha,t number of acres, situated where tliey are, tell in 
forcible language the great value of this very important 

Its earliest settlement runs nearly coeval with that of 
Indian Island, and so closely identified that the narrator 
of the early settlement of Indian Island has almost 
unwittingly to himself written the history of Campobello. 

Located almost w' bin gun-shot of the town of East- 
port, as may be supposed, it holds uninterrupted inter- 
course with it, not only daily but hourly. 

Welchpool and Wilson's Beach being the principal 
marts of trade on Campobello, they hold a commercial 


ll'iy of FumJji Ishnid!-, dud Ishts, 



relfttion8lii]y with tlds nK)st easterly io.wn (f the State of 
Maine, that keei'Fi up a plvkciui,! fiioiulship each for each 
which nothiii/:^ less t}i.';n iniliunal hostihtiesronld destroy. 
CamDohclh) is deh'<rhtfu!lv situated, and seems to 
coquet \Yith tlie waters of tise l^ay of Fimdy on the cue 
side and witli tliose of Passaninqnoddy Bay on the 
other. The shores all around Uie island are abundantly 
stored witli fish, and the fisliermen of Canipohel'o are 
noted for .lieir enieq/risiuf? industry — for their courage 
and their dexterity in hiindhnir their splendid boats in a 
heavy sea. Perhaps tii(.se dariiig boatmen of Saml>ro, 
Nova Scotia, and tlie hardy fellows of St. Johns, New- 
foundland, would liiid their ruiucli in the tishernieu of 
Cnmpobello, and, indeed, of those of all the islands in 
the Bay of Fundv. 



presents quite a village aspect. Sheltered cozily from 
nearly all the storms that sweep over the bays, this snug 
li'tle town-like village carries on quite a brisk trade. 
Possessing excellent facilities they are utilised by several 
enterprising traders, to the mutual convenience and 
advantage of veudors and consumers. There is a neat 
Episcopal church, having a lovely site on a romantic- 
looking hill, and near by a schoolhouse with aU the 
modern improvements. Accommodation for visitors can 
bo had at tiie village at moderate prices, and to those 
who prefer a very quiet lodging in preference to noisier 
places, Welchpool offers her hospitalities. Here is a 
goodly cluster of fish-houses, where pickled, dry and 
smoked fish are prepared for exportation in large qu:m- 
tities. Here at Welchpool is a mineral lead deposit, 
Avliich a few years ago was worked with considerable 
activity ; but like many other similar enterprises, it fell 
through; and the sound of the miner's pick is no longer 
heard at Welchpool, blending iu cheery unison with the 
boatman's song. If there existed a disposition among 
the people to cheat the custom house, no fairer oppor- 
tunities present themselves than are to be found at 
Welchpool. And nothing can better prove the firmness 
of the peo])le to resist the temptation of illicit traffic, 
than the every day and every night opportunity, without 
the attempt. 


In Charlotte Conntyy Nmv Bruiisuick. 






) and 

I neat 


\\ the 

■s can 


is a 

it fell 
h the 
nd at 

Here at ^Volchpn()l Adniinil William Fitzwilliatn Owen 
resided. Admiral Osven owned the island. Welclipool 
was coiiHequently the dtjiot for all the naval ntorcs on 
the station. Tho old Adiniral could stand on 'Novated 
,<mHind nnd look over his ishuid domain and the busy 
po/'ulation of it, and s)u>ak forth the words of command 
as authoritatively, as when Btandin«jf on the quarter-deck 
of a man-of-war issuiii^' orders to Ids gallant tars. 

In tlu! sunimev of 1841, Her Mnjesty's steamship 
(Joluiiihiii, Commander Cartwri^jlit, arrived from I'lng- 
land, for the purpose of snrveyinji: the Ihiy of Fundy and 
its eoaht.^, under the directi(^ns of Admiral Owen. Com- 
mander Cartv.ri(;ht and the old Admiral disagreed. The 
cause of the disagreement Avas best known to them- 
selves ; but it ended in Captain Cartwright leaving t^ho 
ship Columbia and taking up his residence in the City 
of St. Jolm, having received the appointment of residen- 
tary hydrograplier, in v^'hic•l capacity he acted. Com- 
modore Harding, K. N., was sent out from England to 
take command of the Columh'ia. 

Mr. John T. C. Moses, now a resident of Grand 
Manan, received an appointment, in the spring of 1842, 
us assistant 'an rreyor in the service of this naval rfiu'vey. 
The Columbia steamed over to Annapolis Eoyal shortly 
iiftei to regulate her nautical instruments, chronometerR, 
<kc., (kc, and returned to Cami)obello to receive fresh 
orders from the Admiral. 

Commander Harding, with an efficient staff of survey- 
ors, went to the City of St. John, remaining about six 
jnonths in those v.aters, surveying the harbour and the 
River St. John, Tho sarvev of the river between St. 
John and Fredericton was ])erformed during the winter 
on the ice, and the men suffered severely from exposure, 
to cold. These surveys being completed, the Columhia 
steaming to Clrand Manan surveyed all the south-east 
portion of the island-^the Murr ledges and the Outer 
Islands. St. Andrew's Harbour next received attention 
from the attentive Columbia. 

In 1843 the Government wharf and a large store were 
built at Welchpool, and yet remain (although dilapi- 
<lated monuments) as evidences that tlie surveying 
steamer Columhia had been there ; and the venerable 
proprietor of the soil, Admiral Owen, and after him 



W-'->i, ■■ 


Bajj of Fundi/ Islands and hletn, 

Captain Robinson-Owen, but tbiit they hiive left the 
once busy scene of opei'itions, and left it to return 
never ! 

They died not on the battlo-fiold; but slept 
A quiet aloep — in pouce — while uthurs wept. 

Sic transit (/Inria ninndi.' Such are the fluctuations 
of human happiness — such tlie fading of worldly 

Three younj? New Brunswickors — Forbes, Burton and 
Otty — joined tlie C<diimhia while on the Bay of Fundy 
survey. Young Otty subsequently joined a man-of-war 
on the Mediterranean station : but was unfortunately 
drowned, just as his promising abilities began to bud for 
blo.'.som! He was of the City of St. John, and had he 
lived, would doubtless have won fame for himself and 
hie native city. 

The present lighthouse keeper at the southern Wolf 
Island, Mr. Edward Snell, was Queen's pilot on board 
the Columh'ui, and Irom his lone look-out now can find 
food for reflection. 

In the summer of 1844, Admh-al Owen went to Eng- 
land in the Cohunhia, his family accompanying him. 
The old Admiral of Campobello and of the steamship 
Columbia hoisted his broad pennant on going into the 
harbour of Portsmouth, and felt no doubt something of 
the spirit within him which swelled the spiriti of the 
brave CoUingwood, when he with full flowing topsaib 
carried his ship into action ! 

Captain Robinson, of the R^yal Navy, subsequently 
arrived from England, and having taken one of the old 
Admiral's daughters as a life-prize, the son-in-law^ ulti- 
mately became the possessor, the proprietor occupant of 
Campobello, taking the name of Robinson-Owen ; hence 
afterwards, he was always addressed as Capt. Robinson- 

After Campobello became the property of the son-in- 
law, he received sundry applications by gentlemen of 
N' V York for the purchase of the island, and a surveyor 
WHS sent on to survey the entire island, preparatory to 
the consummation of sale. If the writer has been cor- 
rectly informed, the stipulated price was one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. Aijd although that reads a 
large sum, yet, taking the island's wealth of broad acres 


In Charlotte County, New Ihunsuick, 101 

m of 



ids a 


into consideration, its unhomided wealth of sea- fishery, 
its wealth of vuluahle timber and undergrowth of lovely 
young trees, its rich i)aEturafjo, its numerous leased 
plots of cultivated jrardens and ueat residences, its 
water-power for mill privilej^es, its minerals, its almost 
unrivalled heauty of location, and the very entrepot for 
cjommercial facilities and advantaf^es with the most 
easterly town of the most easterly state of the United 
Sates of America, tiiat amount of money, in comparison 
with its intrinsic value, is a mere triJle. 

It seemsrather sinj^ular tiiat no sale was effected, as 
Captain Ruhinson-Owen was willing to sell, and another 
j)arty was anxious to huy. The captain's terms, how- 
ever, were very likely cash down, and therein may have 
been the cause of no transfer. 

There is a portion of the island — Wilson's Be^cli and 
vicinity — that is freehold, independent of the rest of tht^ 
island, which would restrict the purchase of Carapobelht 
to certain defined limits, and that, of course, largely 
interferes with a sole pro]^rietorship. Head Harbour 
lighthouse, too, with its other erections belong to the 
Dominion of Canada ; and the time has not yet arrived 
when the Canadian Government will put any of her 
public works in the market for sale. 

The numerous lessees resident on Campobello are too 
warmly, too tirmly attached to the British flag, to see 
any other hoisted over their heads, emblematical of a 
foreign lessor. Such as patriotic Major Brown would 
never consent to it. 

Campobello, in common with the other islands jf the 
Bay of Fundy, is the nursery of a hardy, skillful and 
enterprising race of men, who, should the hour of need 
demand their services, would prove themselves able f\nd 
undaunted sajlors — men who would never surrender the 
flag of their country but with their lives. Of such stuff 
is our islanders composed. 

At the time of the threatened Fenian invasion, Cam- 
pobello was loyal to the core. 

The western part of this lovely island approaches 
the shore of Lubec quite closely. The channel be- 
tween the American town, Lubec, and the shore of 
Campobello is narrow, and at low water it looks to 
the uninitiated as an easy task to wade across. 



Bay of Fun (hi Islands and Tslm^, 

Tlie attempt, however, wonlcl teach the lesson of its 

At a Dotcd bead-land near by rises up from the 
nishinff tide a high rock, which, from its siiij:?ularly 
marked resembl.aice to the head of a monk, has received 
the rrtme of Friar's Head. Old dame Nature seems to 
liavt^ had a special re^^ard for Grand Manan and Campo- 
-bello in way of carvin<>- out for tliem the representations 
of clerical dignitaries ! Slie may have intended the Old 
IMshop at Xoi't'^.ern Head, and the Old Maid at Southern 
Head, Grand Manan, as yepresentatives of Adam and 
Kve, but missed it. And, indeed, very few of the pos- 
terity '4 those two ancient woi'thies would be willing to 
accc^pt those two rough -looking portraits of humanity as 
the pictures of tlie father and nicther of us all ! 

Geographically considered, there is a dissimil rity 
between Grancl Manan and Campobello. For instance, 
Grand Manan lias on its south side, its coves and har- 
bours, and roads and villages. Campobello, on its 
south easteri> side, has no harbonr or sheltered cove, or 
roads, or villages. The western side of Grand Manan 
offers no favours to seamen or landsmen — in safe 
harbours, roads, or villages. The north-western side 
of Campobello has iis iiarl)ours, its villages, and its 
gardens. Therein, is the dissimilarity. 

Wilson's beach. 

This portion of Campobello is no unimportant one. The 
Wilsons, after Avhom it is called, carried on a larg and 
lucrative lisli trade at one time here, o'.id were hignly 
esteemed, as accommodating and liberal- minded traders. 
The beach opens out on the river which runs past it 
from the Bay of Fuudy, and between it and Deer Island 
ami Indian Island. It is called the eastern passage, 
l)etween Eastport and Head Harbour. The tide at 
either ebb or flood rushes past Wilson's Beach with 
astonishing velocity ; and a vessel, once in the tide, 
even in a calm, will be carried onwards with wonderiul 
rapidity. The eddies along both shores perform a 
friendly work in counteracting many a disaster which 
the whirling tides might otherwise occasion. 

There is a Free Will Baptist Church at thio place, 
and quite a population. After the Wilsons closed up 

In Charlotte Counttf, Nav Brunsnick, 103 

last it 
ide at 
)rm a 
I which 

?d up 

business, the fishermen traded principally at i^kstjiort, 
hut as there is a store there now, a large share of the 
custom remains there, vvhich proves of greati^i«inveni- 
fence, erspecially in rouffh weather and durinpj th* winter 
season. The denominp.tional faith of the people is 
principally divided between tbe Episcopalians and the 
Free Will Baptists. Quackery either in r-'eaching or 
physic is not sufficiently patronised on Campobello, fur 
any adventurer to try the experiment. 

The postal arrangements of and for the island afford 
good encouragement to the bnsiness-man, and to those 
who wish to hold daily intercourse with newspapers. 

The venerable mail-conveyancer, Mr. Rico, of Welch- 
pool, has been on the route between that i)ool and the 
town of St. Andrews for many long yeais, and the 
many conflicts he has encountered while conveying Her 
Majest\'s mail-bags to and fro between those ports 
would form quite an interesting chapter. Daring the 
I winter season, particularly, to navigate the turbulent 
waters of the Passamaquoddy Eiver and the St. Andrews 
Bay in a two sail boat, and that without any additional 
assistance, must have tried the skill and nerve of the 
fearless mail-man, Mr. Rice. But he was never known 
to shrink from his duty on account of a storm. Perhaps, 
indeed, his zeal lietimes would appear to out-run his 
discretion : and when manv a man would have let 
the mail-bags lay over until the storm abated, he would 
close-reef liis sails, and grasping his hehn with u 
practised hand, bear away for the good old shire town of 
the County cf Charlotte. • 

Welchpool, annually, is the scene of a Fish Fair. At 
the close of the summer and autumn fishing the fair is 
I held. And competitors for prizes exhibit specimens of 
fish with as much of the spirit of competition as the best 
Agricultural Fair can show. This fair proves, a jolly 
time, and invitation cards are posted off in good season, 
away up the St. Croix, even to Upper Milltown, net 
omitting St. Andrews, St. Stephen and the American 
City, Calais, on the way. 

New. paper editorr or their representatives are there ; 
and doctors and lawj'ers and ministei's — both eceiesiar,- 
tical and governmental — and ladies, all slippered for 
th« dauce, do congregate at Welchpool on the happy 


Bay of Futuhj lalmids and Islets, 


occasion of the annual fish fair. Then it is that the 
fastest saiHng boats spiead their canvas wings to fly over 
the waves of the Quoddy, in daring speed to win a first, 
a second or a third prize. Then it is that many a heart 
beats high in glowing anticipation of being nvesen at 
the Campobello fish fair and the ball in the evening ! 

The ball opens and the spirit of nierriment may be 
Hiipposed to make its appearance ; and in the words of 
the Rev. John Skinner, author of "Tullochgorum" and 
other songs, sings : 

"I>ay fiside your sonr g"imaces, 
Clouded broTvs an J drum lie t'lices; 
Look about and see their graces, 

How they smiKi delighted. 
Now's the season to bij'meiTy, 
Hang tlie thoughts of Aharon's ferry; 
Time enough to turn (.amstary, 

When we're old and doited." 

The samples of fish cured at Campobello are very 
creditable ; and the "Finnan baddies" from there, find a 
leady sale at remunerative prices in the American 
markets, and in the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario, 
and elsewhere. 

VVelchpool has now regular steam communication with 
St. Andrews ; and that of itself is a great acquisition to 
its many other facilities and advantages. 

The Head Harbour light and the keeper's residence 
stands on a bold, rugged rock, on the extreme north-east 
point of Campobello, directing the mariner through the 
channel that leads to Eastport and Indian Island. The 
West Isles, lying opposite, is only separated from this 
rocky point and Wilson's Beach by this tide-river, which 
rushes at all times of tide with great velocity. Head 
Harbour seems an appropriate name for the Harbour 
here found. The lighthouse points the way, and vessels 
seeking safety from a storm, if once within this harbour, 
can ride out a gale without feeling it. The harbour 
penetrates the island for a long distance, and with its 
little separative windings, affords calm security and a 
lee-shelter that cannot be excelled even by its near 
neighbor, the far-famed L'Etang. The banks and 
shores and extended land on each side of this splendid 
river-harbour presents a very pretty pastoral picture in 
summer, as flocks of bleating sheep with their sportive 
lambs enrich the beauty of the scene. The mother of 




h its 
,nd a 
hro ill 
ler of 


In Charlotte Counttf, Xnr BnniswicJc. 105 

jnilk and butter and cheese, too, can occasionally he 
seen reposing on her verdant couch on a gentle knoll ; 
chewing her cud with the utmost Complacency, and quite 
indifferent to the approaching stranger under canvas. 
]3ut the stranger- sailor, while looking pleasingly at the 
good-natured face of the dreamy cow, cannot say with 
Selkirk : "They are so unacquainted with man, their 
tameness is shocking to me." 

iTlicre is a long, narrow stretch of sharp rocks, extend- 
ing from the keeper's house to the mainland, nearly 
roserphjiiig the l)ack bone of a whale. Over this, when 
the tide leaves it, is the pathway to the island road. 
Quite a fair road rnns through the middle of the island 
from east to west ; and along this road, here and there, 
is a small clearing and a small house, a small cow, a small 
lot of poultry, a few small chickens, with two or three 
small children. It reminds one forcibly of anew settle- 
ment on a small scale. To the lover of inland scenery 
— of Nature's handiwork in a quiet w-ay — a drive along 
this central road through Campobello (or to those who 
prefer a good long walk) with shrubbery and rich under- 
growth of woods {'.nd tall, waving branches, composing a 
welcome ihade from the heat of cloudless sunshine, this 
road will be found very pleasant. At some little elbow 
turnings, there are the prettiest alcoves imaginable, 
where the velvety grass and thick foliage of saplings, 
woo the passer-by to rest awhile. They seem, indeed, 
as tiiough they were for **whisp'ring lovers made." 

On leaving this woody road from an eastern starting 
point, or entering it from the western part of the island, 
the broad basin-like waters of the Harbour de Lute, 
fringed at many parts of its here flat and there elevated 
shores with neat cottages and gardens, impress the be- 
holder with the happiness of tliose who make happy 
blending of rural with sea-life their happy choice. Tlie 
residents of Campobello are thus happily circumstanced. 
On it is suthcient variety of landscape, to meet the desire 
of those Avho Iotg to ramble through the woods ; or, if 
desiring more adventurous recreat'on, can climb to the 
top of a lofty spruce, free from appieheusiou that Bruin 
may catch him on his descent ;• or take & stand on the 
edge of a precipitous cliif, and look out on the ever- 
'heaving bwsom of the Bay' of Fandy ; ov casting tho eye 



linn it/ Fniuhi hknuh and Inlets^ 

downward, see tli'e ^v•hiI•ling tides and eddies lashing tlu.- 
rocks of ftges heneath his feet. Around it, those who 
love boating, can enjoy that salt-water luxury to any 
extent ; for bay ann river, cove and harbour; are all 
before them for tlie using. No doubt many a roving- 
youth, and othori, seekers of wealth in distant lands, 
have often thought wJien far away from their Carapobello 
Island home, like ad<)}>ting the words of the poet Gray, 
and say or sing : • ♦ 

"Ah happy hills ! ah pleasing shade ! 

Ah fields beloved in vain, 
Where once my careless childhood strayed 

A stranger yet to pain. 
I feel the gales that from ye blow 

A momentary bliss bestow, 
As waTing t'resli their gladsome wins, 

My wearv sonl they seem to soothe. 
And redolent of joy and youth, 

To breathe a second spring." 


Jit Charlotte CouiUif, }ieic BnoiHirick. 107 



^^^jbIjIN closing the present history of the principal 
j'tjlsj Islands of the Bay of Fundy, in the County 


of Charlotte, in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick, and the Dominion of Canada, a reca- 
pitulation may he indulged in, without 
subjecting the author to the charge of redundancy. A 
few minor omissions, too, may find their record in this 
chapter, to as much purpose as if they had appeared in 
their regular order. 

The population of Deer Island, Indian Island and 
Campohello ought to have been stated under t)ie proper 
hfead. It is not yet too late to supply the omission. 
When the census was taken in 1871 tliere were in the 
parish of West Isles (which includes Deer Island, Indian 
Island and adjacent islets) 299 families : a total popu- 
lation of 1,55G — 815 of them being males and 741 

Campobello contains a population of 1,073 — males 
.571, females 502. The number of families on the island 
in 1871 was 202. 


Is too important to be oniitted in enumerating points 
and facts connected with the history of our islands. 

The pen of the historian of North America, of what- 
ever age or nation, has never failed to chronicle the 
wonderful tides, which of themselves are sufficient to 
entitle this bay, on the page of history, to the fame of 
being the most extraordinary known in the world. 
When Cabot in 1498 — when the adventurous Frerich- 
mau DeLevy in 1518 — when Sieur de Pont Grave in 
1603 — when Charaplain and De Monts in 1605 — and 
away back in the centuries of the past, when the Micmac 
or Algonquin Indian paddfed his birch canoe along the 



Bay of Fuvdif Islarula and Islets, 


I ">; 




shores, and up and (Lnvii the rivers, the hasins and the 
lakes of this Acrtdia — those tides rushed on, as is no^\ 
their wont, in their unparalleled irresistibiiity. 

It seems almost a tax on the credence of the human 
mind to imaj^ine a rise of water tvrice in twenty-four 
hours to the immense hei^j^ht each of 60 or 70 feet, and 
yet it has its verilication in the tides of the Bay of 

Otlier tides, in other parts of the world, pale into 
insiijnificance compared with those mighty swellingi of 
our grand old l^ay of Fnndy. 

Cumberland Basin, Cobequid Bay and Avon River 
are the principal points where those tremendously rush- 
ing tides roll on in terrible velocity and sublimity of 
grandeur. At the last-mentioned place, Avon River, a 
horseman often has the speed of his horse put to hard 
trial to escape the fury of the rushing tide as he crosses 
from Yarmouth to Windsor. When the tide is out the 
flats are hard and drv, and ''a short cut" across the flats 
from village to town is preferable to a round-about 
road ; hut whip and spurs are required betimes to escape 
the fury of the "bore," as he madly spreads over the 
flats with a seeming eagerne»s to outstrip the horse and 
his rider for their temerity ia thus obtruding on his salt 
water domain. And there have been instances where 
victims have been overtaken and drowned while attempt- 
ing to cross the flats, which a little precaution would 
have prevented. A person acquainted with the tides 
runs little risk ; while one ignorant of their amazing 
impetuosity, had better travel higher ground than the 
flats at the head of Avon River. 

In dealing Tvith the liiHtory of Grand Manan, it ought 
to be mentioned that, on following the Whale Cove road 
from North Head to Eel Brook, a very pleasing sight is 
presented ; but the person or persons wishing to see .it 
must take a clear starr}' night, or even a dark cloudy 
evening, any time, indeed, after twilight, provided there 
is no fog to veil the view. On rising a hill, from the 
top of which Campobello and the North Shore is visible, 
there is a certain spot of ground from which, as a stand- 
point, the eye can see the Swallow Tail light, the 
Point Lepreaux light, the south-west Wolf Island light, 
the White Head (Bliss Harbour) light, and Head Har- 

m the 


Tii Charlotte County, New Brunawicl-. 100 

})onr ]i;4-i!t. Than, Iroin the oiiu staiul-point, without 
cbaui^iiij^ position, nothing more than a sliglit incHnatioii 
of the head, the lamps of five h(>hthouses are phdiily 
viKihle to the beholder. It is well worth the tronhle of 
u walk and the seeking for the spot of gro^nid— the 
standpoint. The looking for what, you are sure to find, 
lias even in itself a sort of teasing charm ; but you must 
not step around, tantivy-like, slov,' and sure, to see the 
live ligbthouses. ' The disiances from the Northern 
Head to Head Harbour light and the Wolf Island 
liglit, are said to be about equal, and the distnnee front 
Wolf Island lighi to Head Harb'Uir light is equal to its 
distance from Northern I'lead ; therefore the three 
angles and the three sides are equal, forming an 
iquiliJeral triangle of a salt-vvater area. 

Among the many changes for the better, • regarding 
our ishmds in the l»ay, the milhia drilling may be 
classed. The men of Grand Manan must be considered 
sufficiently skilled in militarv tactics, as there is no 
training on it in these davs. Tiie superic# mode 
adopted years long ago was admirably calculated to 
eft'ect proficiency ; for instance, a valiant captain, 
whose trusty blade, his good broadsword, n(>w liangs 
sus])euded on a rusty nail near a cook stove, wouM 
drill his company in this wise : "Take hold of thy head 
of your lam-rod, and ram it down l)risk]y, if you please, 
gentlemen." A gallant colonel from St.- Andrews, Col. 
Hatch, was j)resent on one of these occasions, and hearing 
the directions of the captain, smilingly reprimanded him 
by saying : "There are no such words, sir, in the Drill 
Book as 'if you please, gentlemen.' " The polite captain 
succumbed to his superior officer, the noble colonel. 

Anotlier Grand Manan ca))tain would order his men, 
in true fisherman-style, to *'ship bagnuts," "unship 
bagnuts" (bayonets). No wonder the art of war was so 
speedily learned, under such competent otiicers. But, 
those good old days have passed away; the remembrance 
of them, however, is not so soon forgotten. Wood.vard\s 
(Jove was the field where our hardy fishermen learned 
to "play sodger" 

Ami whore man? a potent dram '' 

Cttud'd a real fight, and not a shani. * 

The fishermen, being so accustomed to ship and 



Bay of Fuiulfj Islavfh and laletSy 






luisliip their ])oats' rudders, wore dclif^fLted at receivin*^^ 
orders from tiioir militia ca])tiiii] in tlioirown veniiiciilar ; 
lieiict) a It^adiii;:: cause in their aptitndo to learn. 

Another ohject worthy of notice, especially hy the 
curious in such matters, may be seen at Pettes' Cove 
(this cove has also the nrtme of Spraj]jue Cove). 
The object of interest referred to is a hirjnre opening 
throu^di the base of a high cliff at the noith-western 
part of tiie cove, wliicli must have l)een the work of 
centuries, formed and eaten through by the action of 
the tides wearing and tearing, jind disintegrating by 
piece-meal this huge hole through the rock. At low 
water or before it, and at two houj-s flood, tiiere is but 
little difficulty in passing through tlif^ clifii" by Ihis 
rugged hall-way. The actual measurement of this 
gigantic orifice through the massive cliff is 25 feet in 
length, 8 feet in height and 8 feet wide, so that at 
nigh water those who wish to pass through in a boat 
need iind no difficulty, no matter wliich way the wind 
bl'ws. A tourist from the states, some few years ago, 
visited the island, and in a book of his travels describes 
this hole through the wall of rock ; and that, in the face 
of the cliff through which he had passed, saw a striking 
proiile, which, from its strong resemblance to the face 
of Washington, he named AVashington's Cliff. 

The writer of this history, from his view of it, believes 
that the proiile bears a stronger resemblance to the face 
of Wellington, and, therefore, as it is a Canadian cliff, 
it seems more seemly to m'.me it Wellington's Cliff, in 
honour of the l^ritish Ii^m-o of Waterloo. In deep seams 
high over head, when in this canopy of rock, may be 
seen a sulphurous sediment, and by laying some of it on 
the palm of the Jiaud and smoothing it with a knife-blade, 
it resembles vellow naint. A rich varietv of mineral 
rock is found here, consisting of manganese, crystalized 
quartz, and baryta. A beautiful specimen was picked 
up on the last day of June, 1876, of the quartz, that 
weighs some 10 lbs., glittering and sparkling like the 
shining stars of the luminous galaxy of the firmament. 

Before quite leaving the Northern Head district, 
around which the narrator's pen loves to linger, the new 
fish weir, erected at Long's Eddy b> Lakeman k Com- 
pany, merits at least a passing notice. Where there 

In Churlotte Coinitt/, Xew Bnins/rick, 111 

it m 

iff, in 
av be 
it on 
l^e the 
\e new 

are so many ilslj wcira aiouad the shores of the hay, it 
would seem unneccHsary 'to say a word concevniui; this 
recently hiiiU. Eddy weir ; hnt as uothinjjj of the kind 
'fiasevev been attempted tliere before, tlie undertaking is 
h)oked to with considnr!d)le interes^.t. The jijreat rush of 
tide at ibis place, and the exiiosure of it to tlie fury of 
liortherly, easterly and westerly storms, with the whirl- 
in*? eddies withal, have prevented many an ardent 
lisherman from risking labour and money in the erec^ion 
of a weir that the lirst storm migl t sc - er to wind and 
wave. It, however, is now there, and from the building 
of it the enterprising company entertain sanguine hope 
of a good investment. It has long been noted as a 
great and favourite resort for fish : and if fishermen are 
good judges in the signs, then Long's Kddy is just the 
place for a weir. lusteaJi of driving stakes for brush, 
bed-pi<.'ces of great length have been laid close together, 
and those ballasted with large stones several feet higli. 
Should this peculiarly-constvucled weir prove a success, 
it will he the harbinger of scores of others, and the 
Lakenum weir of Long's Eddy will open up a new era 
in weir building. 

It is within the triangle area of salt water, already 
described, that the Indian in his bark canoe finds his 
profit and his sport in shooting porpoise. Let the 
reader picture to himself a calm day, but the waters 
covered with dense fog, he on the deck of a vessel, and 
without sea-legs to stand on, holding to the rail to keep 
up, and from rolling larboard or starboard in motion 
with the craft. He sees nothing, he hears nothing, 
save the swash of the rolling wave against the sides of 
the vessel, and the discordant gratings of the booms and 
flapping sails, and blocks rubbing their hard heads to- 
gether so harshlv that it seems thev do not wish to 
"(ksvell together in unity." Now the fog lights up — 
clearer and clearer — tliere it is clear enough to discern a 
speck upon the water rising and falling with the undul- 
ating waves. *Now it becomes plainly discernable. The 
object seen is an Indian — not an Algonquin, neither a 
Milicete, but a veritable Micmac. There he stands, 
with arms folded across his bronzed breast, his dusky 
features shining in the gleam of sunshine like a 
polished mirror ; the birch canoe, rising and falling 


p •: 


y" . 1 1 




Bmf of Fintflif InhuKJs and Txh't^, 

M'itli the j^eiitly rollini; wave benoiitli his moro);siiro<l 
IV'et, Hcoms liko little more tluin a sheet of hark to staiitl 
oil. Hnt tlio Micmac knows his cauoo, ami the tiny, 
tVail-lookinf.t tliinpf seems to knoAV its master. 'I'here 
stands the stoieal Indian, ms impassive as a pilhir of 
niari)le, away out, miles from sh'»re, a h)ne occu]Mint of 
liis frfiil liome nnon the deep. The heavity of the land- 
scape of siirronndin^'nr islands, tlie tops of liglithonses, 
resembling the white s])ires of chnrches in the distan('(.', 
jiave lost tiieir usual attractions. The one object, the 
llicrnac in liis canoe, only arrests attention. See ! Ik; 
l^ends forward — now his ri^^ht arm leaves its mate — the 
h:ind jj^ras[)8 the top of somethinj:^ — it is his faithful 
linn. Almost as quick ns thouoht, it is at his shoulder. 
A shurp report ji^oes boomins;' over the j^lassy sea — a 
tiny cloud of smoke lifts from ov^r tlie canoe, and the 
Indian, with his Ion fj;, coarse black hair streaming down 
liis back, is seen speeding over the Wiives, with a haste 
as though life and death \vere the motive power of his 
pritpolling paddles. And so thay are. Another moment, 
and, the canoe rocks quietly on the wave, the Indijin 
stoops, rising again instantly, and with his rising in 
comes ijito the canoe a porpoise dripping bh)od. The 
fat sea-pig of the biiy, had unwisely exposed himself to 
the eagle-like eye of the j\Iicmac — the unerring aim had 
been taken — an:! the late stoical Indian had ])roved 
himself the im])assi{)ned rifleman of the Bay of Fundy. 
In a short hour or two, ' the porpoise, late puffing in 
freedorii among the rolling waves, will have his pelt hung 
across a pole by a wigwam, while the little papoose, 
almost as oily as the porpoise, is trying an attempt at a 
war-dance and a war-\thoop over the cai'case — a faint 
picture of the bloody scenes ol Indian warfare in the 
olden times. 

Ashore, and in proof of the facility of the soil at the 
Northern Head district, it is only necessary to state the 
fact, that about th6 middle of June, 1870, a cabbage was 
measured in the garden of Rev. Aaron Kennev, which 
was found to be over thirty inches across from tip to 
tip of two leaves, potatoes as large as hens' eggs and 
peas in pod half-grovpn. At Pettes' Cove beets, in the 
same month, eight inches high — the leaves broadly 
covering the rows, and in this case, free from the 


Jn ('h(trh)ttfl Covnfjf, New Bmncnivk. 113 

at a 
I faint 


onei'vatinpf inlinences of hotbonse stinmluuts, theicliy 
oxcellinjj the niinisfor's frnnlen. With such evidf^nneH, 
it would ])e a I'alunmy on tlio island to cliavj;''' it with 
Bterility of soill 

Aa riiiLfj^'a Cove, so fiillod, is the 1(>a<lin;^ luvrhonr of 
(rrand Mtinnn, and whore the loail-stemnor, WilVmm 
Siroud, lands her ])iisson.!;evs and mails, it is oidy justice 
to the travellinjif puhlie — those wlio desire or intend to 
Tisit the island, eitlier on pleasmc or hnsiness — to add 
a few particulars to those jirevionsly ■]»resented to the 
reader. The nnrnhor of family vesidencfs are OO. all 
told, and eontainin.<( at the present time 7^> families. 
'ITieie are 9 aho))s and 'Stores, 4 wharves and a larji^e 
number of ()utl)uiidin<]fs, which were the whole nuniher 
compiicted in town style, would look very favourably from 
an approach by water. The numerous liouses between 
Griffin's Corner (formerly Di-uj^an's) and Diake's Dock, 
with Mio two stcn-es in that district, are not included in 
tbti number stated. The buildings, ma.ny of them, are 
delightfully situated. J:Juilt on elevated ^a'ound, over- 
lookinjTf the broad cove and outer islets, and being neatly 
ptiinted, a stranger, having pictured in his mind a 
fishing hamlet of rudi^ cabins, would tiud himself most 
agreeably disa])poiuted, especially when on binding, 
and a walk of live miimtes — no more — to find himself 
seated with tables before him, spread, and spread 
abundantly, with healthy aliment for body an<l for mind. 

North Head at Flagg's Cove is the starting point for 
peddlers and travelling agents for business firms wdio 
\'isit Grand Manan. From there they diverge to all 
parts of the island, like spokes of a wheel from the hub 
— a comparison, not odious to those commercial 
irradiators of dark-coloured calicoes. Two new stores 
in course of erection, and a verv fine dwelling intended 
to be shortly built at Griftin'« Corner — a site (either 
for public or private i)uilding) that can hardly be 
excelled, if equalled, on the ishmd — w-ill add to the 
ben uty of the place. A public hall will also be built at 
North Head. The land has been purchased, and funds 
raised towards the accomplishment of that laudable 

Thus has progressed that portion of Grand Manan, 
now known as District Number One, within the very 


Btifi i>f Fund// f>iJnu(h nii'l I>ilrfn, 

L ( 

f<3\v Hcoros of yeavH Kiiice tiK^ j;«K)(l old vetenin pionecr« 
ill its soUlf^moiit, P'lup;*; n\u\ Spni«,'iii', ])itoluHl thoir 
t<Mits, witli the resolve each "horn will I livo juul here 
will r (li(,':" tuid ho tlif^y did, livii);:j useful lives, jiiid 
d\'i)ij^' \)VM-"U\\ (le.iths. 

The postal (ucilities. too, which this iinporhiiit ishnul 
enjoys, pivsoiits w strikin;^' coiitrust with thoHO of tlie 
}vist. Yenrs a;;'o, find not lonj^ ii^'o, a small schoonor 
would fly the nniil-tla/jf over, very likely, a dozon of 
newspapers iind l)alf as numy letters; and pass^^n^ers, if 
any, would much rather prefer a seat on the lumhered-up 
deck, ttlthougii saturated wilh salt- water spray, than \s^t< 
helow and enjov the dolectahle oscillation of i)ituhinp' 
and phnififinj^ in sweet harmony with Her I\lajesty*s 
mail-vessel. iJetimes a small Haill)0ut was hrouffht into 
rerjuisition. 'I'he salary to the mail-<-'arrier would not 
justify him in indul^in^ himself with the luxury of a 
iish-sdiooner, reudertul deli^ditfully odoriferous hy the 
P'resonce of old oil barrels, decayed fish tubs, and 
swashing: hil<,'c water. Theii the wail of the mail-carrier, 
echoed hy some sym|)atijisin)cr friends, or the cry of a 
sorely ^'rieved passenger, would reac.-h the ear of the mighty 
and the mercifnl House of Assemhlv and the (governor in 
Council, and a few more dollars would he added to tlic 
salary of the Grand Manan niail-Ciirrier. Things f?ot 
hitter at last. 700 doL'ars were fi^ranted as an annual 
compensation, and a fast-sailing vessel, well fitted for 
freight and passengers, was put on the route as a rewjular 
})acket. She wa,s called the Carrier Dore, and the people 
of the island and others liailed her with joy akin to old 
Noah, when he received the dove into the ark. There 
was one vessels previous to tlie Dore that merited the 
name of packet, the Graprshot, huilt by Capt. Eben 
Gaskill for a ]>acket, as he had had encouragement (by 
promises) to do so, but he had good cause to lose faith 
in the promises, and the handsome little Grapeshoi 
turned her cannon's mouth in another direction than the 
I'Ost-oifice. The 700 dollars' grant was finally over- 
whelmed hy 4000 dollars subsidy, to have a steamer run 
twice each week during the summer mouths and once 

, between * 



North Head and Woodward's Cove, Grand Manan, 
touching at St. Andrews, Eastport (Me.), and Campo- 

In Chntintte Coiintif, Xt'tr nrtni.^irirl:. 115 

1 tlioir 
il Ikmt 
8, ftutl 


of tiic 
\Zi)\\ oi' 
l^erH, if 

lian go 
jflit into 
I 111 not 
ry of n 
i)y the 
bs, and 
ry of II 
I iniglity 
cnior in 

to tlu; 

tted for 

e people 
Lo old 

ted the 

ent (hy 

se faith 

,hau the 
\ over- 
mer run 
d once 
len and 


hello, with nnd for mails, and other mah a, and females, 
too, nhoiild they desire to step on hoard the ViU'hini 
Stroud. This little steamer has heen recently ilttisd np 
very creditahly, and is now well provided with siiitahle 
Mccommoiliition for freight ai:d p;isseugers ; and more 
than all, tlie mail-hagft j^re not likely to he immersed ia 
salt water, as t';cy used to ho hetimes on board the 
sailhoafs, so much so, that newRpi»por-! and even letters 
iind fi'etpiently to be dried before hemg read. TravellerH 
intending to visit (irand >,Tanan can always make close 
cfMJiHM'ticms at Kastjtort, as t!ie Stroud leaves there 
eve'ry Mondav and Thursdiiv forenoon for the island. 
Fare, one dolhir, Ignited States currency. 

(irand Harbour has two heaths iii close proximity to 
the village which entitle theni to distinction, by produc- 
ing a singular kind of fruit called (peihaps from a 
similarity in colour) "bake:! apple." The plant or 
stalk on which it grows is not over 5 or (> inches in 
height. Only one "apple" on a stnlk. The fruit is 
about the size of a large Malnnt cut in two. It makes a 
delicious preserve, and is ti general favourite with the 
most fastidious epicurean. It is not only a splendid 
preserve, but is very pretty withai, and handsome and 
nice enough to take a proud position on the table of 
royalty. Let any visitor enquire for "Gurdner's Heath," 
and test the "baked apple." 

The sad disasters nnd shipwrecks of the Bay of 
Fundy have been numerous. Hundreds of human lives 
have been lost in the terrible storms that have swept 
over the bay from time to time. N(ft unfrequentiy a 
vessel has left her native port, freighted with men, 
women and children, all intent on a plcMSure-trip, when 
in a few short hours they have been engulplied in the 
sea — the howling winds and the roaring, breaking 
waves singing their requiem as they went struggling 
<loAvn to their ocean graves. 

It has been the merciful work of some persons to 
have proved themselves instrumental in rescuing many 
felFow-mortals from impending death, even along tlu* 
shores, the ledges and the islets of Grand Manan. Mr. 
John Kent and his sons did much in this way, dating 
away back to the year 1810, when Capt. Burnham and 
3 men were saved by them ; in 1811, the ship Duke of 


Bay of Fund}/ Lsldiuh and Isldii, 

10' lit, cupt. ui.ul 31) luoii ; the Kiinis year, :i sehooiipr 
»ud 4 men uud ii bri^ aad 9 men; and soon, np iill 1824, 
havi));^' rescued froui 1810 up to 182-1, 9:3 men. Jliis 
j,'ood worl< fter the death of Johiji Kent, w<is foUowtd np 
hy Ills sun, Jonathan Kent, ending witJi the year 1863, 
und nnniberin*^ 80 lives .saved — totiil 173 persons rescued 
from watery i'mves by the Kent IVimilv ; and i)i nianv 
CHHt.'S relier in food and clothing' extended the Kaved 

Jiut a blighter day lias dawned aver tlje wjitervS of the; 
Hay of Fundy, since the dark era of 1810, wjien m» 
waniing liglit threw its gleams of merciful interposition 
far over the treacherous rock and yawning wa\e, I\Jac- 
liias Seal Ishmd light, Uaunet Kock light, the Swallow 
Tail light ; with Long's Eddy f.^g-whistle, uli stand as 
faithfal sentinels to warn tlio mariner of inpending 

Grand Mnnan has thus her watcliguards through the 
long dark hours of night, holding up her luarinons 
lamps to the anxious sailor, as Le looks longingly for 
the beacon-star to guide him o]i his course. 

The other islands, evei; to that little group call' J t)ie 
Wolves, has on tlie most southei'n island a revolving 
light, flashing fortJi to ahuost all points of the compass 
its shining te the distance, in clear weather, of 20 
miles. And the Head Harbour red cross while light 
flings its bright sheenings away over the main channel 
that conducts the keel of steamer or of harque far up the 
silverv waters of the St. Croix Iliver, even to the verv 
liead of tide-water, where the hospitable and enterpris- 
ing towr. of St. Stephen, N. H., and tije city of Calais, 
Me., are continually engaged iu laudable rivaliship of 
commercial industry. ' 

To return to the consideration of the principal pro- 
duct of our islands in the ]^,ay of Fundy, and to give in 
detail vearlv statistics of the value of fish exi>orted — 
])ickled, dried and smoked — vould swell our little his- 
tory far boyond its limited pages. Such detail, if 
presented, would oarry the reader along through a 
regular ratio of progression, step by step, elucidating 
the steady and gradually increasing value of the fisheries 
in the bay. But as this is im})racticahle here, it must 
suffice for the present purpose to take the catcii of two 

[■ WHii-'y: ' ; 

In Charlotte CoiniUj, New Brunsicicl-. 117 



Te ill 


1 liis- 




yeavs : lay tish. facts and iigures side bv .si<le, in close 
proximity, and by this juxtaposition evidence, see the 
ultimatum of the proLTCSsive principle. 

From an authentic record liept in the year 1829, the 
money value — in fact the money realized by the sales of 
all tbe iisli caught on Grand Manan in that; year — 
amounted to four thousand dollars. Now, passing over 
46 years (having to more than epitomize), and (coming 
down Lo the year 1875, we find, by a similar authentic 
statistic, that tiie sales of that year's catch of fish on 
Grand Manan amounted to two hundred and eighty-six 
thousand eight hundred and forty-six dollars, which any 
arithmetician can soon ascertain to be a yearly average 
increase of over 6148 dollars. Surelv that fact is 
satisfactory evidence of the steadv increase of tbe value 
of the fisheries of the parish of Grand Manan. A sum 
of 6148 dollars annual increase for the last 46 years. 
Were the products of the soil and the increase of live 
stock, cattle and sheen, to be added to the value of the 
fisn, the figures would read a very har'dnome increase. 
And as it is with the Island of Grand Maaan, so with 
those other islands of Charlotte County. Ap.irt from 
oxhibitiiJg statistics, the proofs are manifest. The 
residences, the churcljes, the schoolhouses, the stores, 
th'' wbarves, the boats, the vessels, the cultivated fields, 
the roads, the horses, cows, oxen, sheep, and poultry, 
with here and there the rural hog-pen, all testify to the 
steady march of improvement. 

And what of the increase of human population ? It 
would require more men — more by hundreds than 
peopled Grand Manan fiom Deep Cove to Eel Brook in 
the old days of tbe Seal Cove Dr. Faxon, when Jack 
Tar sang his rebel song — to catch and cure fish to 
bag nearly 300,000 dollars ! The island has those 

T' a population has gone on, and goes on increasing ; 
and as fingers multiply, hooks on the trawls multiply, 
ancj quintals of fish multiply, and boxes of smoked 
herring multiply, and dollars multiply, and so goes on 
the multiplying process of 'he steady, gradual, incrcai- 
ing development of prosperity, pecuniary and intel- 

The hake-fisbiug season, whioh usuallv begins in July 


Bay of Fiindy Idands (Did Islets, 

and ends witli the first fall month, ur, as it sometimes 
happens, riiDs into October, is ahva}s looked fovwavd to 
with ardour full of hop?, hy the fishermen. It is, 
indeed, nn epocli in the island fisheries' of n\ore tliiiii 
usiiH.1 interest, animation and profit. At this period 
Pettes' Cove presents a inost animated picture of lishing 
life. To see upwards of 30 boats and (30 men landinf^ on 
the beach — the boats filled with large fish, and the men 
with bared aru^s and keen knives commencing the work 
of "dressing" on mrgo tables prepared for the occasion, 
18 no dull sight. It is only the expert and well-trained 
fisherman who oan "go through" a fish in artistic style! 
To watch tlie process is not without its charm to a student 
of surgery. First the deciipitation, then the embowelling, 
next the sc^'entific cut- vertebral, followed by the dexterous 
pluck of 'he backbone from the all unconscious bake, 
and the whole post-mortem process is completed. The 
heads, back-bones and other unused portions of the 
entrails arc cast upon the beach, to be carted away for 
compost-manure, or spread upon fields as fertilizers ; or 
as in too many cases, perni'tted to remain until the tides 
wash them away, or they become exceedingly olfensive 
by reason of the noxious efifluvia arising from putreiying 
on the shore. The hake is a very profitable fish. First 
the hake will take in salt in its curing nearly equal in 
weight to itself ; and as fishermen are reputed, like 
sailors, to possess very generous dispositions, knowing 
this peculiarity of the hake, it is not to be supposed that 
the salters will be parsimonious in its application to the 
body corporate. Then the livers are sold as soon as 
tal'.en from the fish at prices varying from 60 to 80 
cents a bucjket, or otherwise put in barrels or casks to 
melt inio oil by tbe heat of the sun. Fishermen, gener- 
ally, prefer selling them to those who make a business 
of preparing oil for the markei, considering it the most 
profitable mode. Then the sounds are washed, dried 
and sold at good prices, from fifty cents to one dollar. 
The latter price has been paid, and much competition 
among- buyers is always manifested. The gold dust 
01 California in its palmiest days could not have caused 
greater e5;ciiement and rivalry among buyers than the 
veritable hake sounds among traders in sounds. A 
novel idea struck the niiuds otour fishermen one season. 


•* .vmg ^ ■T »w »' )H!iM i . r" jai» i - 

In Charlotte Cou'ntij, New Brnnntrick. 119 

Prices ran hvj^h, stvanije reports and false iumors were 
circulated, ha\'inf< their headq'iarters in Eastport, con- 
cerning tlie prices offered by AmericaJi firms. 'L'lie idea 
was to unite together in solid, hake sounds phalanx, 
bring every man, woman and child hi^, her or its amount 
of sounds tof^etlier, and oftbr the Avholc for sale by 
auction. The lishernien, rightly judj^iiifj^ of human 
nature by themselves, that this plan would bring out all 
the buyers, and as determined competition would give 
the sellers the full beiiefit of the spirit of oppo-^iHon in 
the buyers, the sounds were collected, the aucu ui took 
place. One trader found little or no opposition ; the 
scheme, Avell-planned, failed ; and the result was that 
the i-ubseqnent mode adopted was and is to this 
day: "Every one," in selling sounds ''on his own 
hook." Thus the hake is exceptionally the profitable 
fish of the bay in body, liver and sound. 

Fears are entertained by many fishermen — nien of 
thinking minds and large experience — that tbe trawding 
system is calculated to prove extremely detrimental to 
the fisheries. Tlie previous mode of catching line-fish 
was by hand lines ; and although a more tedious oper- 
ation, yet quite remunerative without exhausting the 
supply. Now, however, the fishermen complain that 
this trawling will eveptually, indeed in a xery lew years, 
perhaps not so" long, destroy the in-shore fishing. If so 
small boats will prove useless, and the young men will 
either have to go in vessels on deep sea fishing voyages, 
or otberwise have to leave their homes and homesteads 
for other lands. Those in-shore fishermen complain 
that schooners anchor miles from shore, and by setting 
their trawls so far outside of the in-shore lines, keep 
the fish from striking nearer the land, and, conse- 
quently, they, the in-shore fishermen, must either tollow 
them miles from shore in their small boats, which is 
next to impossible in windy weather, or relinquish the 
only avocation they have followed as the means of sap- 
port for themselves and families. There is, tberefore, 
a vevj fair opportunity now for the Department of Marine 
and Fisheries at Ottawa, and c^'tain other parties not 
so far from salt water as Ottawa, to look into such 
matters, and govern themselves accordingly. 

V^'^ith the present history of the islands of the Bay of 

' > 

1'20. Bay of Fimdy latands and Islets, 

Fundy, in Charlotte County, before thcin, and tlip public 
irenerally, no person can claim i/Tnoranco of the import- 
ance of thoHc islands as a portion of the Dominion of 
C*anada, and of the necessity to look carefully into the 
best means available to add to that importance, to 
foster, by wise anc] just legislation, the natural resources 
of those isiknds, and to assist the people in their 
hazardous and laborious calling to yet o;reater develope- 
ments in working out their part, to their own individual 
advancement, and to the common interest of this 
"Canada of ours." 

Taking the population, the area, the wealth and the 
native talent, and in many the cultured minds of the 
parish of Grand Manan, the parish of West Isles, and of 
Campobello into consideration, it seems strange that 
those islands have not been represented in the Legis- 
lature of the Province of New Brunswick, by one of 
themselves — a resident of any one of the islands. No 
local jealousy ought to exist on this point. No matter 
whether of Orand Manan proper, or any of its outlying 
islands; whether of White Head or Nantucket; whether 
from the i:ear proximity of the Old Bishop or that of 
the Old Maid, near Deep Cove, or here or there ; no 
matter if a resident of Welchpool or Wdson's Beach, or 
Harbour de Lute, or Indian Islan^, or even Thrum Cap, 
or Lord's Cove, or Fairhaven, or Chocolate Cove, or no 
co'^'e at all — anywhere on Deer Island — it matters not — 
on the subject of those important islands sending one of 
their own men to represent their ever-increasiug inter- 
ests in the ProvinciaL Parliament of New Brunswick, 
there should be no di:isent. Let those island parishes 
be a unit in this matter. Let the people decide to put 
shoulder to shoulder ii) this cause, and there will not be 
found votes enough in the County of Charlotte to leave 
that island candidate at home. It cannot be expected 
that an outsider — one whose home, relatives, associ- 
ations, property, interests, are all on the mainland — 
feels and takes that interest in the prosperity of the 
islands thai he takes in his own locality, and those 
neare" to him than the islands. It is the duty there- 
fore, of the islanders to be true to themselves, tbeir 
families and their homes, and no longer remain passive 
in this absolutely necessary work of polilical reform ; 

In Charh/ttc- Coiodt/, X'-w Ihtiiisinrk. 1'21 






If the 





form ; 

liut uegin to think woll of it, look into it, appreciate tho 
necessity, and eollectinjnf all their electoral strength 
t<)<];ether, use it wistdy and well, elect tbeir n\fin, call 
him out. l>y re(j[nisiiiou as the mau of their choice, and 
send him forth from that political f )cns, the l;allot-hox, 
wearinf? the jj^arlaud of victory, to be their month- piece 
and their reoresentative on Ihe floor of the Lo'-isiatin'O 
of their coiintrv. 

There is an end to all thiijgs h<r*; below sooner or 
later; and on connting onr pages of manuscripl., we are 
admonished that the end of our Ijt'.le histiny draweth' 
nigh. Many honrs have passed pleasuntly in com- 
pilation. And yet they ar<^ remembered with regret. 
Regret that the work has been so iniperf(!ctly performed; 
so mnch left undone that O'ight to have been done, and 
rice Tc.rHa. The author is, neither ignorant nor 
indifferent to the critical crucihle it has to pass 
through, and yet he will not so cringe with fear and 
trembling as to beg of critics to bo merciful. Like, 
)ather, the stern battlement of nature's rocks which face 
defiantly the lashings of the merciless sea. ho looks 
unmoved upon the sneering lip and wonld»be caustic 

Having no pecuniary equivalent in view — free from 
that consideration — his one ardent, deep, sincere desire is 
that tlie little brief history of the islands treated of, all 
unpretentious as it is, Avill tend to make those islands 
better known — will give them a place, "a local habitation 
and a name" — among the many portions of British 
North America, confederated as they are into one great 
and rising nationality, known by the name of The 
Dominion of Canada. 

Tihe writer has not drawn upon imagination to picture 
by ]3en sketches the loveliness, the picturesqueness, the 
beauty of those islands as they lay out and rise up 
among the waves of the Bay of Fundy. They need but 
to be seen to be admired. The \vords oi the poet Cow- 
per are applicable to them : 

•• Scenes must be beautiful which diiily view'd. 
Please daily; and whose novelty survives 
Iwong knowledge and the scrntiny of years." 

And, now to close, let the pen of Colonial pa- 



Bay of Funrli/ Islands and Mrfi;. 

triotism Avrite, and tlie heart of Canadian patriotism 
feel, that 

As thf) high fame ol'the Do»ninion ffvowa; 

As farmers till the soil, and fishers fish the sea- 
Contented in prosperity — 
Resigned in adversity — 

And beneath hic^h floaven's approvintj snailes, 

Our own lov'd Buy of Fundy's lovely isles, 

will, in the n«xt decade of years, judginpr from the past, 
afford ^ a yet richer field for interesting and gratifyin<j: 


St. Stephen Advcvthfrnenis. 



Newspaper Subscription Agency. 

Suhs'crij){if))iH received at Clidi Ratcxfor all flic h'adiiiu 
Papers mid MafiazincH in Canada and tlic United States. 














€. M. vatoo'fi. 

or Canadian Newspaper Subscription Agency, 
St. Stephen, N. B. 



Established 1864. Capital $2,000,000. Govern- 
ment Deposit $103,000. 

Canada Fire & Marine Insurance Co. 

Established 1874. Capital $1,000,000, fully sul)scribed. 
Government Deposit $50,000. 

ZWFlvG antl A.eclcleiit Jnsvirance elTeotecl at 
ll.oaso]i.a.l>le Kates. 

St. Stephen, N. B. 

<S- S- mUM, 4geat. 


St. Stephen Advert iHenunits, 

3aint Stephen, N. B,, 

IfealevH in 

J * 

W' -Ji^^ijl 


Imttf iittcl Mnhi Sttiries, 


Soaps^ Perfumexy, &c. 

Physicians' Prescriptions 
Carefully Compoiindech 




Si. Stephen Advertisements. 



Selling Off ! SeUing Off ! ! 




m m^mi M & Fom €m&Mm 









Boots and Shoes, ^c- 


To be Sold Regardless of Cost ! 


BuF ¥@iif ©@tt@m Wa^p® 





St. Sti'.phen Afhwrfiannrnfa. 


X.A.I>IK^' A.IVr> ttKNTls*' 

.^ine §old and §ilver*^atches, 





I (.ul)0. 

Solid Silver and Silver Electro Plated Tea 
Sets, -Cake Baskets, Butter Dishes, Castors, &c., 


Table Spoons and Forks, Tea and Dessert Spoons 
and Forks, Parlor Clocks (30 hours, 8 day and 3 
Weeks),, &c 



a. F. PIFDEH, 

Four l>oors from Bridge , 

Water street, St. Stephen, IT- B. 

A()«nt for Florence Seivimi Machine 

St, Sti'phcn Advartuementn. 


I take this opportunity of announcing that I 
have bought out the interest of my late partner 
in the Tailoring business, and will continue the 
same business at the old stand, commencing now 
with a full and well-selected stock of every re- 
quisite connected with the Tailoring business. 
All Garments warranted to fit, or no sale. I 
will keep constantly on hand a good assortment 



Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods. 

I have just received a New lot of Fashionable 
Cloths, which I will sell by the yard or make up 
to order at very low prices to suit the times. 

Look for the Sign 


Wm Wm&m^fmm 


Water Street, St. Stephen. 



. 128 

St, Stephen AdrartiHcmcuts. 





Those desirous of doiug their own Painting, would do 
well to give us a call. 

Large or small quantities of Paint and Oil furnished 
as desired. 

Glazed WizidovT-s 


tai®w ilass ®ff Ml Sties 




Water Street, St. Stephen. 

Eaatport and CampahcUo Adrcrt-HCnirnt. 


• .)( 



lastp@ft^ M© 



^ish, ^ish §ils ^ (gish §uano, 




And 7armouth Bloaters. 


Manufacturers of the Original 

CAFl All 0IL CLOT llig. 




130 Grand Manan AdvertuementH. 



North Head, 

§tg ^aofljs and f rotWonsi 


\t Prices for Ready Ifloiiey that offer 
CSreat liiducemeiits to PurcliaMei-w. 


Grand Manan, 1876. 

Magnus Green, 

Ocuiler lu 




Opposite ilie steamboat I^ancIiniK, 



Dry Goods, Prints, Calicoes, Ginghams, Sheetings 
and Shirtings, Ribbons, Laces, 

And a <iireat Variety of 

At b«r BMideaee, leir PittM* Core, ijfortli Brad, on rer} RiaMoaltie Terau. 

Grnud M^inan Adrrrtisemenfa. 


TJ^illiam T?7att, 

Keeps Conttanfly on Hand a Good Assortmont of 

Tobacco, Sf Gf^cef^es 

Ofall Kinds, also a Hmt Variet}' of 



iNearly opposite Steamkat Landing, Norlli Head, 

James O'Briezi, 



Fishing Gear, Lines, Hooks, Nets, Anchors, 


Smoked Fish always on hand, and can he. nhipped to 
order at all times. 

Good facilities for Boats JLanding at his New JVharf. 

North Ilead, Grand Manou. 


Grand Manan AdveHiscmeids. 


^m % 'MSL<B 

m\ 1^ 


Keeps constantly oa Hand a Large Assortment of 


JR.EADY- Made Clothing, 


l@®ti» ®fe@©® 


And a Good Stock of 


All of which are sold at the most reasonable prices. 
Customers promptly attended to. 

Woodward's Covo, Grand Manan, Sept. 1^76. 


And %ou will find all kinds of Goods which 
make up a large variety of 

provisions, §roceries, §rockery, 

yery Cheap for Cash or Good Merchantable Fish. 

A F«lr ISxohaiiKe Is the Motto of Wy Store. 







3 prices. 



; Fish.